Etchells et al. (2017) asserted that screen-based lifestyles are creating “moral panic” (p.1) and that the claims of adverse effects of screen time on behaviours and development lack research-based evidence. This multi-authored open letter published in the Guardian would appear to be in response to the palpable rate that technology is manifesting in our lives and the often-heard expression of concern from the masses surrounding the rate in which it is arriving. Tamana, S.K et al. (2019) concluded that there is, in fact, evidence to suggest a correlation between screen time and stress, which was established through the collection and analyzation of research participant’s saliva. The study found that there was a relationship between the use of screened devices and the rise in cortisol levels, which is the hormone indicated with a rise in stress levels. Stress has been found to lead to obesity in adolescents (Murray, Rieger, & Byrne, p., 2015) and illness, depression, and anxiety in college students (Rawson, Bloomer, & Kendall, p., 1994). These findings indicated that excessive stress could be physically unhealthy, and if there is a direct correlation between screen time and stress as suggested by Tamana et al. (2019), it can be concluded that excessive screen time is physically unhealthy. Alternately, however, not having access to screen time can also affect behaviour and cause stress. Konok, Pogany, & Miklosi (2017) found experimental support to conclude that humans form attachments to their mobile devices and seek proximity to them when separated. I have felt the jolt of panic and the physiological symptoms of anxiety when my iPhone has been misplaced, and then the re-stabilization of my nervous system when (finally) safely back in my hands. I believe there is a balance needed but hypothesize and agree with Etchells et al. (2017) that further quality research studies are needed surrounding this topic to establish the impact of digital technologies.
Etchells, P., et al. (January 6, 2017). Screen time guidelines should be built on evidence, not hype. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/science/head-quarters/2017/jan/06/screen-time-guidelines-need-to-be-built-on-evidence-not-hype
Konok, V., Pogány, A., Miklósi, A. (2017). Mobile attachment: Separation from the mobile phone induces physiological and behavioural stress and attentional bias to separation-related stimuli, Computers in Human Behavior, 71, p.228-239 doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.002.
Rawson, H., Bloomer, K., & Kendall, A. (1994). Stress, anxiety, depression, and physical illness in college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(3), p.321-330, doi: 10.1080/00221325.1994.9914782
Tamana, S.K., Ezeugwu, V., Chikuma, J., Lefebvre, D.L., Azad, M., Moraes, T. J., … Mandhane, P. J. (2019). Screen-time is associated with inattention problems in preschoolers: Results from the CHILD birth cohort study. PLoS ONE, 14(4), p.1–15. doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1371/journal.pone.0213995
Murray, K., Rieger, E., & Byrne, D. (2015). The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents. Stress and Health, 31(1), p.13-23. doi:10.1002/smi.2516
Researching the history of the use of cinema in education resulted in the discovery of vast amounts of information; nevertheless, the sources analyzed were narrowed to the five most appropriate, and within these sources, themes were identified that are relevant to the furthering of research in this area. This paper identifies themes discovered through the exploration of five sources surrounding this topic, bridging a period of one hundred years; that each respectively examined the use of cinema as an innovative tool for teaching and learning. Both anecdotal and scientific evidence was provided in the respective sources to support claims of productive uses of cinema in education, though additional patterns arose through critical analyzation. These patterns indicated gaps, limitations, and concerns requiring further contemplation and investigation. This paper will focus on the juxtaposition of these themes and make connections in order to postulate the implications of using this medium for effective teaching and learning. This essay will begin by first discussing some common themes that arose for the corresponding authors when using cinema in a variety of educational settings, including, improved understanding and empathy, increased student engagement, and enhanced learning opportunities; it will then go on to critically analyze the collective gaps, limitations, and concerns identified in these separate articles which demand further scrutiny.
Using cinema as an educational tool to promote understanding and empathy was a common theme discovered in the literature review. Campos and Knudsen (2018) and Rorrer and Furr (2009) claimed that film could provide an appreciation for various perspectives and promote cultural awareness and empathy. Data collected from 180 surveyed medical residents supported this notion, as 89% of respondents reported that their understanding of suicide assessment and treatment, as well as the grief process and impact on families, was increased (Retamero, Walsh, & Otero-Perez, 2014, p.609). In addition to these findings, Kaye and Ets-Hokin (2000) argued that the use of the film “The Breakfast Club” during residency promoted the understanding of adolescent development and identity formation and cemented future empathetic attitudes towards adolescent psychiatry patients. Kaye and Ets-Hokin (2000) and Rorrer and Furr (2009) agreed that the reason film could increase understanding and awareness was that cinema was an engaging teaching tool. This assertation aligned with the second theme extrapolated from this literature review; learner engagement, and the augmentation of learning using film as a medium.
Nearly one hundred years ago, Crandall (1926) suggested that not only could using cinema in education engage learners but could also, in fact, enhance the learning. This older suggestion is strengthened by the recent findings of Campos and Knudson (2018), who discovered that cinema used in a classroom setting cultivated the development of critical thinking and analytical skills. Retamero, Walsh, and Otero-Perez (2014) found that concepts shown through multimedia could enhance the learning when addressing the topic of suicide with psychiatric residents, and in a similar healthcare educational setting, Kaye and Ets-Hokin (2000) concurred that the use of cinema allowed the medical students to draw connections for future applications when diagnosing developing adolescents. These common findings support the use of cinema as an effective tool in teaching and learning; even so, there were some corresponding limitations and contradictions identified throughout the five articles that warrant consideration.
In contrast to the previous evidence that supported the use of cinema in education, several parallel gaps discovered in the literature established that further study might be needed to validate the use of cinema as an effective teaching tool. Crandall’s 1926 piece noted that instructors could not merely be “throwing motion pictures at the children” (p.114) and that cinema, like other educational devices, must fit the purpose. Crandall (1926) predicted that pedagogical practices would be resolved in the future, and this would no longer be an issue. Campos and Knudson (2018), Kaye and Ets-Hokin (2000), and Retamero, Walsh, and Otero-Perez (2014) all agreed that instructional design and methods of instruction are critically important when using cinema to educate and confirmed that the issue of sound pedagogy continues to plague educators. Crandall could not have predicted the complexities of future education in 1926, and arguably nor could current researchers predict the complexities of education in the future; what can be safely established from analyzing these various works is that films should be selected to support the pedagogy, and instructors using cinema as a teaching tool require instructional supports (Crandall, 1926., p.114., Rorrer & Furr, 2009, p.164). This is as significant today as it was when Crandall (1926) stated that in the future every established educational institution would have solved the “technique” problems and be using cinema with purpose (p.115), which arguably continues to be a complex issue in the current, increasingly digital learning environment, where the efficacy of pedagogy is reliant on the instructor understanding technology, learner diversity, and adapting the learning context to the instructional environment (Murty & Rao, 2019, p.1). Acknowledging the importance of pedagogical practices and instructional design was highlighted in several of these articles and strengthened the author’s assertations, that said, there were also limitations and contradictions encountered in their respective arguments.
Several limitations and concerns were identified through the analyzation of the five articles, which included antiquation, limited sample sizes, and inadequate ethical considerations. Crandall (1926) and Kaye and Ets-Hokin (2000) are both antiquated, with the former being postulated nearly one hundred years ago long before digital film and streaming modalities; and the latter by using “The Breakfast Club” as the film choice to represent adolescent archetypes from 1985. Rorrer and Furr (2009) conducted a study using only thirty-three participants from a region of North Carolina, and Retamero, Walsh, and Otero-Perez (2014) failed to include a comparison group and thus were unable to verify the impact on student’s attitudes post-screening. Finally, and arguably most important, several studies demonstrated inadequate ethical considerations; Campos and Knudson (2018) screened films that contained complex themes that may have required further supports be in place, and Retamero, Walsh, and Otero-Perez (2014) attached an incentive grade to the viewing of the film and participation in the study, and four students vocalized they felt required to watch as a result (p.608), moreover, actual footage of suicides were used in the film (p.610) and two students required post-screening counseling (p.608). Despite these concluded limitations and concerns, the history of the use of cinema in education explored through these five articles was encouraging, with all collectively finding cinema to be an effective tool in teaching the desired concepts.
By comparing and analyzing these five articles focused on the use of cinema in education, common themes emerged that connected arguments and supported findings for the continued use of film as a teaching tool in various learning environments. Additionally, the literature review allowed for the examination of potential limitations and concerns for future use of cinema in education. Historically, cinema has been used in many educational contexts with varying success, although the sources here were narrowed to a small collection, patterns developed through the comparison, and should be noted when using cinema as a teaching tool. We are streaming, downloading, webcasting, webinaring, and PVR’ing, and it may be concluded that no one can predict how films will be accessed in the future; nonetheless, the use of cinema for effective teaching and learning can be an excellent tool if used with sound pedagogy and purpose.
Campos, D., & Knudson, E. (2018). Using film to expand horizons. Educational Leadership, 76(4), 73-78.
Crandall, E. (1926). Possibilities of the cinema in education. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,128, 109-115.
Kaye, D.L., & Ets-Hokin, E. (2000). The breakfast club: Utilizing popular film to teach adolescent development. Academic Psychiatry, 24(2), 110-116. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.24.2.110
Murty, B., & Rao, K. (2019, April). Digital pedagogy: An opportunity or a threat? Proceedings of International Conference on Digital Pedagogies (ICDP). doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3375701
Retamero, C., Walsh, L., & Otero-Perez, G. (2014). Use of the film the bridge to augment the suicide curriculum in undergraduate medical education. Academic Psychiatry, 38(5), 605-610. doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1007/s40596-014-0086-y
Rorrer, A., & Furr, S. (2009). Using film as a multicultural awareness tool in teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(3), 162-168. doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1080/15210960903116902
Richard E. Clark (1994) argued that there is little to no evidence that media influences learning. Robert Kozma (1994) also offers evidence that media has not played a substantial role in learning, although he leaves the door open to arguing that media still have the potential to do so in the future. The authors’ positions are refuted by many scholars and writers. We have compiled some examples.
This paper focuses on the use of games for learning and questions the position of Clark (1983, 2010). The author argued that using games in education and training is engaging and results in stronger learner involvement, simulates realistic environments, stimulates problem-solving, and supports learning-by-doing; which all supports “the acquisition of tacit and contextualised knowledge.”
This article points out the use of Virtual Reality in the online biological science degree program in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University. A unit within Arizona State University – EdPlus – is dedicated to “scaling access to education through online programs and other initiatives” (EdTech, para. 7); it is responsible for the implementation of VR within the school. Philippos Savvides. a EdPlus learning technology manager, states that using VR, the students “get to be active and move around using the headset and controller, so there’s an active-learning element involved”. Clark (1994) restates from his early work that “that any necessary teaching method could be designed into a variety of media presentations” (Clark, 1994), but in the case of the movement allowed in VR learning, this specific learning could not be replaced by other movement-restrictive technologies.
This article features the role of technology in enhancing the learning experience for students. Utilizing education technology in the classroom (e.g., virtual pinboards, screen sharing, and VR) has made it easier for teachers to engage their students by making learning more interactive (Kennedy, para. 6). Keeping pedagogy at the core of developing these products is essential. According to several edtech providers, this field is competitive. To ensure not only the longevity of the product but also the efficacy of the learning tool, pedagogy needs to be incorporated in the product development; The critical element to the success of this is ensuring that the different roles the teacher, the learner, and the technology play are fully understood (Hague, para. 10). As Kozma (1994) asserted, the question that should be asked is, how do we use the capabilities of media to influence learning for particular students, tasks, and situations? (p. 23). This question articulated that media do have a place in enhancing the learning experiences of students as well as the experience of teachers providing the lessons.
Clark (1994) claims that media have no advantages when it comes to learning. Lynch (2017) would disagree. In his article “7 Ways Technology is Impacting Modern Education”, he states that technology is a considerable means in pedagogy, and that technology can significantly affect students’ and teachers’ learning processes. Lynch lists the ways in which technology aids learning; he makes a strong point observing how young learners become more passionate about their studies depending on how interactive their learning is. He offers geography class as an example; Students are much more passionate about studying geography when using interactive technologies such as Google Maps or Google Earth. Clark (1994) on the other hand feels that media are not responsible for bringing passion to learners. Overall, Lynch’s view in the great media debate contradicts Clark’s.
Clark and Kozma offer a challenging view of the role of media in learning. Their arguments are robust and controversial. As the learning and technology community continues to evolve, Clark and Kozma’s writings have yielded an abundance of healthy discourse. We are pleased that we have the opportunity to explore some of the many articles and research.
The history of the use of cinema in education is long and film has been used in many contexts over the last one hundred years. In my search for information, I uncovered many artifacts discussing this topic that were written between 1919 and 2019. Here, I have provided an annotated spreadsheet of five sources in which I felt particularly relevant to my search for historic uses of film in education:
“Your wrist phone chimes with a message from your spouse. Her business trip to review the Sahara forest project will finish early and she ought to make the noon hypersonic shuttle and be home by teatime. Maybe you can still make the premiere of that new zero-G dance show tonight. Time to leave. You signal the table to resorb the scant remains of your nutritionally balanced breakfast. The kids couldn’t wait. They are already in the media room for the day’s first lesson – their artificially intelligent tutor-cum-playmate is conducting a virtual reality tour of the first Olympic Games, reconstructed from the latest time probe results.” (Turney, p.6, 2013)
Our homes are embracing technological innovations at speed we may not have imagined ten years ago. Turney (2013) imagined a home where technology has seeped into all aspects of our daily lives: information, communication, education, entertainment, leisure, transportation, and infrastructure. Smart home technologies are making this vision a reality. In this joint blog post, we explore some innovations that are enabling home automation; we provide some resources that exist for setting up and use of each smart home technology; and finally, we explore the implications of the abundant content and resources available.
Through several meetings and asynchronous research efforts, we have uncovered three cutting edge smart home technologies and some resources that will allow homeowners to learn how to use these innovations.
The Philips Hue Home Lighting System
Control both intensity of light — dimming or brightening on-command — and the color of lights. It can create a personalized experience by using special color-coordinated moods (i.e. choose the “energize” theme on Hue app for a specific room or sync it with music). Also, by using color-coordinated alarms (i.e. wake up every morning to a bright pink bedroom). Philips Hue Play HDMI Sync Box. Sync color smart lights to your TV shows, movies, and games https://www2.meethue.com/en-us
Three gadgets of Philips Hue Home Lighting System:
Hue lights: These smart and energy-efficient LED lights come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and models to suit different spaces.
Hue Bridge: The Bridge acts as a smart hub, connecting your devices to your smart lights. up to 50 Philips Hue lights and accessories can be added to one Bridge.
Hue app: Control smart lights quickly and conveniently with the Philips Hue app
Turning off all your lights with one tap
Using color to personalize and transform the home atmosphere as per convenience
Safety by programming lights to make it seem like you’re actually home.
Use of Philips Hue:
Bluetooth: A Bluetooth-controlled system can control lights within Bluetooth range. Set the mood of a single room with any Philips Hue Bluetooth-compatible bulb and the Hue Bluetooth app, which controls up to 10 lights
Hue Bridge: Adding a Hue Bridge activates the built-in Zigbee network — a more advanced way to control your lights — and unlocks the full suite of smart lighting features: add up to 50 bulbs, set routines, and more.
With an Amazon Alexa or Google Home device, you can use simple voice commands such as, ‘Alexa, dim the lights’, or,’ ‘Hey Google, turn on the table lamp’, to control your lights. Compatible devices include: Amazon Echo Dot 3rd Generation, Amazon Echo Plus, Amazon Echo Show 5, Google Home Mini and Google Home Hub
The Ecobee4 allows to control air temperature with voice commands, it also works as its own Amazon speaker, so it can do everything your Alexa or Assistant can do, including play music, shop, and control other devices. https://www.ecobee.com/
Use of EcoBee4 Thermostat:
Provides personalized all-around comfort: Room sensor to help manage hot or cold spots
Comes with Amazon Alexa Voice Service built inside: perform the many ‘skills’ that come with Alexa. All you have to do is ask and watch the blue light pipe on top of the thermostat blink in response. For total hands-free control, it can even hear you from across the room
Lets you focus: With Alexa, fulfill everyday tasks with a simple command. (i.e. grocery lists, play music, set alarm)
Clear Communication: ecobee4 has embedded microphones with far-field voice recognition and a speaker engineered for clear voice and full sound
Accessible: All commands can be controlled using one app
Energy Saver: Save up to 23%* in heating and cooling costs each year. ENERGY STAR® certified
How to start using EcoBee4 Thermostat:
Hire a professional installer to get ecobee device or do it yourself;
Removing your old thermostat back plate
Determine your HVAC system type by checking if you have one or two sets of terminal labels on your old thermostat’s back plate.
If you have a C-wire, it will power your ecobee. You won’t need the PEK included in the box
If you have an extra wire that isn’t connected to any terminal on your thermostat, you can use it as a C-wire.
Ecobee4 integrates seamlessly with apps and other home ecosystems like Alexa or Apple Home Kit.
Portal from Facebook
Portal from Facebook allows video conferencing, listening to music, checking the front door, displaying photos, sharing stories using augmented reality effects, playing games, surfing the web, and accessing popular apps. https://portal.facebook.com/ca/
Use of Portal:
Hands free video calling
Comes with Amazon Alexa Voice Service built inside: play music, surf the web, get the news and weather by saying “Hey portal”
Play games and share photos
Camera automatically pans and zooms to focus on you, even in a room full of people.
Voice-enhancing microphone that minimizes background noise. front porting stereo speakers and a rear woofer for rich hi-fi sound
When you’re not on a call, Portal can show pictures from your Facebook photo albums
Display birthday reminders and the weather.
Can connect to TV for large display
How to start using Portal:
Purchase a portal box here: https://portal.facebook.com/buy/.
Download the portal app for syncing with devices
After plugging in device, follow onscreen instructions for two step set-up
Call, email or chat instantly with portal support team for set-up issues or technical support
Portal integrates seamlessly with several apps including, words with friends, Spotify, iHeartRadio, Facebook watch and CNN, and connects with smart devices for use on the go, is compatible with WhatsApp and messenger.
Incorporating these technological innovations into our homes to make them “smart” can be exciting, and it is fun to imagine the future possibilities that these innovations can generate. The content available currently surrounding smart home technologies is vastly abundant, but consideration needs to be given to the number of innovations that are emerging, and the speed of their arrival. Weller (2011) postulated the impact of having an abundance of learning content and resources and examined how in our digital, networked age, the scale of the content we have access to is on a different level. In smart home technologies, the user is the generally self-taught, and installs, sets up, and operates the technology with remote support, instruction, and troubleshooting being supplied by the company designing the tech. As home automation continues to grow, so does the amount of content that will be available concerning these innovations, and this abundance may need more educational considerations then the smart technologies themselves.
Ertmer and Newby (2013) postulated that many instructional designers are inhibited by an inadequate understanding of foundational learning theories, and in their paper, intended to familiarize designers with three original learning positions. Behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are dissected and evaluated for practical applications in learning environments.
The authors convincingly argued that instructional designers possess two requisite skills and knowledge: understanding the position of the practitioner and using evidence-based research to implement solutions (Ertmer & Newby, 2013, p.43). Exploration of these three foundational theories was not a new exercise; however, the way the authors analyzed the theories through comprehensive comparison allowed for a fresh review and contemplation. Although not only one theory can apply to all situations, within my past teaching practice, I have aligned most closely with a constructivist approach. Learning to work in a healthcare setting, requires that students are reflective, self-directed, critical thinkers in real-world (often in crisis) situations. According to Ertmer and Newby (2013), constructivism links experiences and meaning-making, and does not merely passively obtain knowledge, but rather create and interpret meaning from their interactions and experiences. When teaching medical language foundations, I would collaborate with nursing instructors and design simulated patient scenarios where students in different programs could practice speaking the medical language to each other and interact in context. In these simulated scenarios, students could reflect and decide what they might do differently based on previous interactions. During the simulations, there were plenty of opportunities to pause, reflect, and make meaning. Brandon and All (2010) suggested that healthcare instructors who allow for regular assessments of activities and debriefing through questioning, enable students to learn strategies that help them actively learn, and to become life-long learners. This constructivist approach in my previous healthcare education teaching experiences seemingly adheres to the first principles of instruction identified by Merrill (2002, p.43).
Merrill (2002) identified five principles of instruction which are arguably commonplace in a variety of learning theories. In using a constructivist design, healthcare instructors planning simulation activities are supporting learners in solving real-world problems, in accessing and applying previous knowledge, in the demonstration of new skills by instructors and peers, and by integrating new knowledge into an experiential world; which aligns with Merrill’s (2002) identified principles of instruction.
Both articles argued that learning theories are needed to underpin the instructional design and to implement appropriate teaching and learning strategies. Surprisingly, neither article heavily emphasizes the need for connectedness, peer interaction, or social schemas. Philosophically, I feel that this interaction and exposure to peers and instructors is crucial, and much research has emerged that supports building classroom community and that creating student connections with each other and with instructors has a beneficial impact on the learning. McInnis Brown and Starrett (2017, para.3) surveyed students who answered questions on connectedness and their academic experience overall and found that almost all (94%) of those surveyed revealed they felt that connectedness improved their overall academic performance, provided a sense of safety and security, was motivating and assist with memory retention. Vygotsky (1978) argued that all mental functions be explained as products of social interactions, and I tend to agree with his theory; I have never seen students as energized and keen to learn as when they are in interactive learning situations: simulations, role plays, group collaboration and problem-solving activities. In my new role, I will be working with faculty from various programs and subject areas, and as an instructional strategist will be mindful that not all learning theories will apply to all situations; but I will carry forward Merrill’s first principles of instruction as a starting point in my hunt for the appropriate theory.
There are many bloggers, podcasters, authors, and internet contributors who are devoted to revolutionizing the field of educational technology and are deserved to be added to the RSS readers of progressive and passionate educators everywhere. Among those many trailblazers is Michelle Pacansky-Brock, a college teacher “turned faculty developer” (n.d.) whose passion for access, equity, and professional development for online teaching and learning is palpable. Pacansky-Brock dedicates a large portion of her blog, podcast, and multiple publications to the topic of educational technology; and further specializes in “humanized learning” (2016), which uses the cognitive and affective domains to inform course design and instruction to build connected online learning communities. The process begins by asking, “how might I design a humanized learning experience using digital technologies?” (Pacansky-Brock, 2016). Creating and managing an online learning environment in which diversity is not only recognized but valued is one of the key aspects of Pacansky-Brock’s humanized learning approach, and; this desire to break down systemic barriers and begin to bridge the equity gaps in education merits attention. By acknowledging these gaps, she is opening a meaningful dialogue that is needed to truly begin creating connected learning environments that are safe and accepting for all. She also acknowledges that she is coming from a place of privilege, which inspires further dialogue critical to breaking down systemic barriers “Just gotta put this out there. When white people discuss diversity-inclusion-equity, we have an obligation to explicitly recognize that we approach this conversation through a privileged lens” (Pacansky-Brock, 2019). This notable contributor will undoubtedly continue to revolutionize the field, and I, for one, am excited to follow this trailblazer.
Pacansky-Brock, M. [@brocansky]. (2019, September 8). Just gotta put this out there. When white people discuss diversity-inclusion-equity, we have an obligation to explicitly recognize that we approach this conversation through a privileged lens. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/brocansky/status/1170739143321604096
Pacansky-Brock, M., (2017). Best Practices for Teaching with Emerging Technologies. Second ed. Best Practices in Online Teaching and Learning. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN:9781138643642
Comparing the opinions and evidential research presented in the respective papers of Weller, (2018), and Reiser, (2001); uncovered patterns of anticipation and anti-climatic stagnation when new technologies throughout history promised to revolutionize education, and then ultimately were followed by the next forecasted innovation. Although written nearly two decades apart, both articles are relevant and have convincingly argued that although there have been significant shifts in educational practices, technology has been slow to make a substantial impact in the field.
In relevance to my own experiences adopting and incorporating innovations and technologies into my classroom, one “lesson from the past” that resonates after reading these individual pieces, is that “Patience is required: educational transformation is a slow burn” (Weller, 2018, p.28). I have felt the excitement and anticipation of the promise of new technologies in my classroom, only to be let-down when the hype subsides, and the deciders have resolved to go with yet another new technology; as the cycle continues. In addition to the disappointment that this recurring broken promise generates, this causes problems when designing the digital learning environment as it is challenging to maintain resources and assignments created for specific platforms and learning management systems if they are continually changing. It would seem apparent that when adopting new technologies, instructional designers, instructors, and administrators will require stamina as “EdTech is not a game for the impatient” (Weller, 2018, p.48), and the next big technological innovation is yet to come.
Researching the history of educational technology is an interesting and interminable venture. A simple internet search will turn up an endless array of articles, blogs, videos, podcasts, and other internet medias analyzing diverse topics related to the field of EdTech. Although there is seemingly an endless amount of information on the subject; the topics, concepts, and frameworks (or lack of) can leave researchers with more questions than answers. Perhaps the problem is that the history of the field is vast, nebulous, and to all appearances based on a variety of opinions on origin and definition. Januszewski (1996, p.285) found that individual constructs varied in the field of educational technology, but that the plurality of histories provided more options to adopt EdTech for specific needs. Nearly a quarter of a century later, the disparity in these histories has led to players without an instructional design background filling specific EdTech needs. Collins and Halverson (2010) argued that new technologies have exploded, and companies are capitalizing on educational technology products that are targeting consumers with deep pockets and that schools are being left behind. They argued that if schools continued to be excluded from the technology discussion, they “may not be able to adapt and integrate new technologies, and the association of schooling with education, developed over the past 150 years, will dissolve into a world where wealthier students pursue their learning outside of the public school” (Collins, & Halverson, 2010, p.165). In more recent publications, the theme of learning from our history, or lack of history to mold the future continues to be explored. Macgilchrist, Allert, and Bruch (2019) speculated about the inherent characteristics of future students through three imagined futures influenced by the present-day policies of educational technology. The authors hypothesized that these social science fiction scenarios could inform future research in educational technology and guide the ID of digital learning environments, and after exploration of the nebulous history of EdTech and its equally hazy future I agree this is warranted; let us clean up the messy landscape now and create a solid history for the future.
Collins, A., and Halverson, R. (2010). The second educational revolution: rethinking education in the age of technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26,18-27. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2009.00339.x
Macgilchrist, F., Allert, H., & Bruch, A. (2019). Students and society in the 2020s. Three future ‘histories’ of education and technology, Learning, Media and Technology, doi: 10.1080/17439884.2019.1656235
Januszewski, A. (1996). History in Educational Technology. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED397800