A Community of Inquiry (CoI) is a model that functions as a framework for instructors which enables them to establish a favourable learning environment when used throughout the planning and facilitating processes. It consists of three vital presences: teaching, social, and cognitive (Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison, 2013).


Teaching presence includes the design and instruction of the course along with the associated activities taught by the teacher throughout the facilitation process (Anderson, 2018). Social presence refers to the students feeling a tie between themselves and their peers, their instructor, as well as having feelings of safety and openness, which will then hopefully lead to a sense of community and trust (Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison, 2013). Cognitive presence can be achieved once the other two presences have been attained. At this stage students can learn purposefully, cohesively, and take part in critical thinking (Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison, 2013).


As an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher to teenagers, I have selected three strategies for each presence which I feel can contribute to creating a Community of Inquiry (CoI).


Teaching Presence

  1. Fun activities that incorporate the learning points
  2. Constructive feedback/corrections
  3. Share personal stories/experiences related to the lesson


Social Presence

  1. Personal introductions
  2. Encourage participation
  3. Make the lesson interesting/funny


Cognitive Presence

  1. Lead discussions and debates
  2. Provide clear instructions for exercises with examples
  3. Recap/review what we have learned with the use of comprehension questions


With the use of these strategies, an EFL instructor can create a successful learning environment enabling learners to work both individually and collaboratively while encouraging a desire to consistently learn and improve. The strategies I have chosen are just a few possibilities out of a plethora of effective actions when developing a lucrative CoI.




Anderson, T. (2018). How Communities of Inquiry Drive Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age. Contact North. Retrieved from https://teachonline.ca/tools-trends/how-communities-inquiry-drive-teaching-and-learning-digital-age


Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, D. R. (2013). Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry. Athabasca University Press. Chapter 3: Facilitation (pp. 45-61). Retrieved from https://read.aupress.ca/read/teaching-in-blended-learning-environments/section/43261c4a-6d4c-44cf-8c7f-60bc306eb03a