Final blog – engagement

My background (education and career) is in psychology so I am naturally drawn to the motivational aspect of education. Engagement struggles are probably the only thing I can relate to when talking to other students in the program. I zone out when I read or hear them complaining about their own students, grading, administration, deadlines. I used to think I disengage because I can’t relate to their experience since I never worked as a teacher. Until I realized that I disengage because I do not want to an instructor. My engagement in the program has dropped to a dangerous bare minimum. I still want to graduate though. But how am I going to finish the remaining year? How much am I going to learn if my motivation is as low as it can possibly be? What can I rely on to stay afloat, if my internal resources are rapidly depleting?

The most useful thing I learned in this course is the importance of other people when it comes to engagement.
The team project was crucial, I felt like working together on a common goal made it more meaningful and increased my motivation as a result. It was also interesting to get to know each team member a little better. Everyone had their own unique strengths and talents, but what they all had in common is the ability to forgive me for being the weakest link, treat me fairly and engage me as their equal. I had to push myself harder to prove that I was worthy of being treated that way.
Irwin’s engagement was extremely important. It was the first time that I felt an instructor went beyond the responsibilities of their job. When someone actually cares to take the time and take a deeper look at what you are struggling with, it almost feels like a miracle.
I guess the lesson here is to seek out external resources when the internal ones are lacking. To not be afraid to ask for help. And to trust that it will come. To let go of the guilty feeling of being a burden.
This is my takeaway about engagement:

If I am struggling to engage, I need to help others help me. I might have little to no motivation of my own, but I need to reach out and be open to being filled with motivation by interacting with others.

Assignment 1: Critical Inquiry Part 2 – Team Awesomest Presentation

In our course for LRNT526, our team (Ash SeniniJonathan CarpenterKristin Beebe and I) has critically analyzed Video-Based Learning. We chose to examine a LinkedIn Learning course for our learning event.

We examined the applicability of this technology in terms of the 4 aspects:

  • Efficiency
  • Effectiveness
  • Equity
  • Engagement

For a brief overview of our research approach and findings, you can view our infographic

References

Astleitner, H., & Hufnagl, M. (2003). The effects of situation-outcome-expectancies and of ARCS-strategies on self-regulated learning with web-lectures. Journal of educational multimedia and hypermedia, 12(4), 361-376. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/14512/

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of Educational Videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.). Fast facts. Canadian Mental Health Association. https://cmha.ca/fast-facts-about-mental-illness

Garrison, D. R. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century: a framework for research and practice. RoutledgeFalmer. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287556984_E-Learning_in_the_21st_century_A_framework_for_research_and_practice_Second_edition

Jones, T. H., & Paolucci, R. (1999). Research framework and dimensions for evaluating the effectiveness of educational technology systems on learning outcomes. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.1999.10782266

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: the arcs model approach. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1250-3

Majeski, R. A., Stover, M., & Valais, T. (2018). The community of inquiry and emotional presence. Adult Learning, 29(2), 53–61.

Panesi, S., Bocconi, S. & Ferlino, L. (2020). Promoting students’ well-being and inclusion in schools through digital technologies: Perceptions of students, teachers, and school leaders in Italy expressed through SELFIE piloting activities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1563. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01563

Stodel, E. J., Thompson, T. L., & MacDonald, C. J. (2006). Learners’ perspectives on what is missing from online learning: Interpretations through the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(3), 1–24.

Weller, M. (2006). The distance from isolation: Why communities are the logical conclusion in e-learning. In Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: The Role of Context (pp. 182-196). 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

List of references for Team Awesomest presentation

References

Astleitner, H., & Hufnagl, M. (2003). The effects of situation-outcome-expectancies and of ARCS-strategies on self-regulated learning with web-lectures. Journal of educational multimedia and hypermedia, 12(4), 361-376. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/14512/

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of Educational Videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.). Fast facts. Canadian Mental Health Association. https://cmha.ca/fast-facts-about-mental-illness

Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century : a framework for research and practice. RoutledgeFalmer.

Jones, T. H., & Paolucci, R. (1999). Research framework and dimensions for evaluating the effectiveness of educational technology systems on learning outcomes. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.1999.10782266

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: the arcs model approach. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1250-3

Majeski, R. A., Stover, M., & Valais, T. (2018). The community of inquiry and emotional presence. Adult Learning, 29(2), 53–61.

Panesi, S., Bocconi, S. & Ferlino, L. (2020). Promoting students’ well-being and inclusion in schools through digital technologies: Perceptions of students, teachers, and school leaders in Italy expressed through SELFIE piloting activities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1563. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01563

Stodel, E. J., Thompson, T. L., & MacDonald, C. J. (2006). Learners’ perspectives on what is missing from online learning: Interpretations through the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(3), 1–24.

Weller, M. (2006). The distance from isolation: Why communities are the logical conclusion in e-learning. In Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: The Role of Context (pp. 182-196). 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

Team 1 (Activity 2) Video-Based Learning: a critical inquiry into best practices

By Kristin Beeby, Jonathan Carpenter, Denys Koval, Ash Senini

Video-Based Learning (VBL) has become a more prevalent tool used in education in recent memory. VBL allows both educators and students to reflect upon and enhance one’s learning process (Perez-Torregrosa et al., 2017, as cited in Sablić et al., 2020). Collectively, our team will examine the use of VBL in various contexts to determine the effectiveness of this learning technology.

VBL originates from the early 20th century, with films covering topics such as Differential Steering and WWII soldier training (Origin Learning, 2020).  VBL has grown since, now providing edutainment through video games and sharing platforms such as YouTube. To inform our critical research pathways and better understand the use of VBL, we will examine LinkedIn Learning’s (formerly Lynda.com) “Becoming an Instructional Developer” learning path (Lynda.com from Linkedin, n.d.). 

LITERATURE REVIEW

We began our critical inquiry research by conducting a broad literature review on VBL to identify various research topics and critical issues to explore. Literature reviews by Sablić et al. (2020) and Yousef et al. (2014) aggregate years of VBL research to generate an excellent overview on VBL, serving as a foundation for our research approach. Once all group members gained a basic understanding of the theoretical aspects of VBL through the readings, practical research topics emerged. The following VBL critical issues are the result of our broad literature review.

Practical Effectiveness of VBL

One benefit of VBL is to provide theoretical knowledge. During the pandemic, VBL became one of the few ways students could gain practical or hands-on experience as well. Determining how effective VBL is in delivering practical information depends on the specific context. For example, we would welcome a conversation with someone who learned the language through VBL, but would be wary of professionals, like doctors or engineers, who learned through VBL. 

Social Considerations

Another critical issue in applying new technologies is to avoid potential harms, as Weller warns, “technology has often negative social consequences,” (2020, p. 173). We know learning is a social process, and VBL could diminish the social component of learning and increase students’ sense of isolation (Kizilcec et al., 2014). If so, are there pedagogical or design solutions to counteract such social side effects, or does the cost outway any benefits?

Student Engagement and Motivation 

Like classroom-based learning, VBL requires a considerable amount of planning and thought to engage learners. There are many variables unrelated to content quality that affect student engagement. Learner engagement variables include video length, annotation, accessibility, content delivery methods, level of cognitive load, social presence, and interactivity. Even though there is evidence that VBL can improve student learning and enhance student engagement (Brame, 2016), it can suffer from many of the same issues of classroom-based learning. The numerous technological layers of VBL pose many challenges and questions unique to this learning modality. 

Considerations for Design 

As with any learning modality, not all instances of VBL are created equal; therefore, it is essential to analyze the various elements of effective VBL design to deliver optimized learning outcomes and experiences. Effective VBL design empathizes with learners to promote VBL adoption (Pappas et al., 2016), initiates memory formation through appropriate learning theories and active learning principles (Brame, 2016), and sustains learner engagement through the use of interactive learning objects (Ouimet & Rusczek, n.d.) and production strategies (Beheshti et al., 2018). Further, VBL accommodates today’s mobile learner by integrating with multiple viewing devices, enabling on-the-go learning that compliments various learner needs, including strict schedules, conforming the demands of today’s and tomorrow’s educational consumer.

CONCLUSION

Like other digital learning tools, VBL has extensive and practical use in online education which can be seen in various mediums today. The prevalence of VBL allows users to gain practical knowledge in a given subject matter. From our initial examination, we will explore critical issues, including social implications, overall engagement, design and equity issues that can occur in the world of Video-Based Learning.

We encourage others with experience in the realm of VBL to comment on our pathway(s) and tell us your own experience with Video-Based Learning. Here are some guiding questions that may help you reflect on VBL:

  • Are there any particular aspects of educational video production that impact your ability to learn? 
  • Do you have a go-to VBL platform you prefer to use?
  • What motivates you to learn from the video?
  • Why is VBL that is used in institutional education often not as engaging as VBL used for personal learning?
  • Do you have sufficient access (e.g. consistent bandwidth) to video-based courses? 
  • Can applied sciences (eg engineering) adopt a VBL style in their education?
  • Could VBL be accepted as an alternative training tool for engineers? (considering that the professional field is highly regulated)
  • What could be taught (in online undergrad programs) through VBL and what should stay in the classroom?

REFERENCES

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of educational videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4), 1-6. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125

Kizilcec, R. F., Papadopoulos, K., & Sritanyaratana, L. (2014). Showing face in video instruction: Effects on information retention, visual attention, and affect. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. CHI ’14, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2095–2102.

Origin Learning. (2020, October 16). The Relevance of Video-based learning. [Blog]. Origin Learning. https://blog.originlearning.com/the-relevance-of-video-based-learning/

Ouimet, B. T. C., & Rusczek, R. A. (n.d.). Video-Based Learning Objects.

Lynda.com from Linkedin. (n.d.). Become an Instructional Developer. Lynda.com [Website]. https://www.lynda.com/learning-paths/Education-Elearning/become-an-instructional-developer

Pappas, I. O., Mikalef, P., & Giannakos, M. N. (2016). Video-based learning adoption: A typology of learners. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 34–41. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1680.2163

Sablić, M., Mirosavljević, A., & Škugor, A. (2020). Video-based learning (VBL)—past, present and future: An overview of the research published from 2008 to 2019. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09455-5

Weller, M. (2020). 25 Years of Ed Tech. Athabasca University Press. 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions [Paper presentation]. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

Does institutional education have to be boring?

I started asking myself this question in high school, continued to ask it in undergrad and here I am still wondering about it. Does a process of learning always have to produce some suffering? Must every learning journey include a path that we need to follow but don’t really want to take? If that is so, why does it often feel like there is more suffering than joy in institutional education?
     It is certainly unfair to place the responsibility onto the education system only. If I rephrase the question as “Why am I often bored?”, it points to a certain lack within me. I am responsible to some degree for what’s happening within me. I am flawed in many ways and it might just be another flaw of mine. But why can’t I stop myself from reading an interesting book till 3 am knowing that I am stealing time from sleep and that I will hate myself at 7 am for doing so when I have to get up and go to work. Perhaps, it is no one’s fault. There is just a gap between an individual and an institution. Is it possible to close that gap?
    Can video-based learning help close the gap or at least make it sufficiently narrow? We chose VBL as a team because all four of us find this medium engaging. While reading research papers related to VBL, it immediately struck me how many researchers suggest that there is an ideal video length when it comes to generating and maintaining student engagement. The general consensus is to keep it short. For example, Brame recommends making video lessons around 6 minutes long. Her rationale is that it manages intrinsic load and “it may decrease mind wandering” (2016, p. 3). Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic (“Cognitive load”, 2021). Did you interpret it as I did?
   So we need to create short videos because the content might require so much mental effort to understand it and it might be so boring unengaging that people can only handle 5-7 minutes of it. Am I the only one who is bothered by this? As a team, we chose the LinkedIn learning course, which follows the short video strategy. The content was not difficult to understand, but it did make my mind wander.
I went to Youtube instead and watched an extremely interesting lecture on psychoanalysis. It was 45 minutes long. While I occasionally watch short Youtube videos with a zero cognitive load such as music videos, cats fighting, drunken car accidents in Russia, I prefer long educational videos. Chess grandmasters teaching end game strategy, comedians teaching the art of creating a joke or a funny story, parenting experts teaching how to manage children’s difficult behaviours. A few days ago I watched a 2.5-hour episode of Joe Rogan’s podcast when a physicist Brian Greene came on as a guest and talked about black holes among other things.
I am sure that you all have your own curiosities that you are passionate about and can spend hours watching videos on the subject. Many of you are passionate about teaching.  Don’t you wish that video-based learning you encounter in institutional education was as engaging and as interesting as your favourite documentaries or educational Youtube videos you watch in your own spare time? Can you imagine watching hours of videos in this program and enjoying them? What would it take for that to happen? Is it really that naive to dream about a day when schools, colleges and universities provide video-based learning as engaging as Youtube? Does institutional education have to be boring?

 

References

Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE—Life Sciences Education15(4), es6. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125

Cognitive load. (2021, March 25). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_load