Video-Based Learning (VBL) has become a more prevalent tool used in education in recent memory. VBL allows both educators and students to reflect upon and enhance one’s learning process (Perez-Torregrosa et al., 2017, as cited in Sablić et al., 2020). Collectively, our team will examine the use of VBL in various contexts to determine the effectiveness of this learning technology.
VBL originates from the early 20th century, with films covering topics such as Differential Steering and WWII soldier training (Origin Learning, 2020). VBL has grown since, now providing edutainment through video games and sharing platforms such as YouTube. To inform our critical research pathways and better understand the use of VBL, we will examine LinkedIn Learning’s (formerly Lynda.com) “Becoming an Instructional Developer” learning path (Lynda.com from Linkedin, n.d.).
We began our critical inquiry research by conducting a broad literature review on VBL to identify various research topics and critical issues to explore. Literature reviews by Sablić et al. (2020) and Yousef et al. (2014) aggregate years of VBL research to generate an excellent overview on VBL, serving as a foundation for our research approach. Once all group members gained a basic understanding of the theoretical aspects of VBL through the readings, practical research topics emerged. The following VBL critical issues are the result of our broad literature review.
Practical Effectiveness of VBL
One benefit of VBL is to provide theoretical knowledge. During the pandemic, VBL became one of the few ways students could gain practical or hands-on experience as well. Determining how effective VBL is in delivering practical information depends on the specific context. For example, we would welcome a conversation with someone who learned the language through VBL, but would be wary of professionals, like doctors or engineers, who learned through VBL.
Another critical issue in applying new technologies is to avoid potential harms, as Weller warns, “technology has often negative social consequences,” (2020, p. 173). We know learning is a social process, and VBL could diminish the social component of learning and increase students’ sense of isolation (Kizilcec et al., 2014). If so, are there pedagogical or design solutions to counteract such social side effects, or does the cost outway any benefits?
Student Engagement and Motivation
Like classroom-based learning, VBL requires a considerable amount of planning and thought to engage learners. There are many variables unrelated to content quality that affect student engagement. Learner engagement variables include video length, annotation, accessibility, content delivery methods, level of cognitive load, social presence, and interactivity. Even though there is evidence that VBL can improve student learning and enhance student engagement (Brame, 2016), it can suffer from many of the same issues of classroom-based learning. The numerous technological layers of VBL pose many challenges and questions unique to this learning modality.
Considerations for Design
As with any learning modality, not all instances of VBL are created equal; therefore, it is essential to analyze the various elements of effective VBL design to deliver optimized learning outcomes and experiences. Effective VBL design empathizes with learners to promote VBL adoption (Pappas et al., 2016), initiates memory formation through appropriate learning theories and active learning principles (Brame, 2016), and sustains learner engagement through the use of interactive learning objects (Ouimet & Rusczek, n.d.) and production strategies (Beheshti et al., 2018). Further, VBL accommodates today’s mobile learner by integrating with multiple viewing devices, enabling on-the-go learning that compliments various learner needs, including strict schedules, conforming the demands of today’s and tomorrow’s educational consumer.
Like other digital learning tools, VBL has extensive and practical use in online education which can be seen in various mediums today. The prevalence of VBL allows users to gain practical knowledge in a given subject matter. From our initial examination, we will explore critical issues, including social implications, overall engagement, design and equity issues that can occur in the world of Video-Based Learning.
We encourage others with experience in the realm of VBL to comment on our pathway(s) and tell us your own experience with Video-Based Learning. Here are some guiding questions that may help you reflect on VBL:
- Are there any particular aspects of educational video production that impact your ability to learn?
- Do you have a go-to VBL platform you prefer to use?
- What motivates you to learn from the video?
- Why is VBL that is used in institutional education often not as engaging as VBL used for personal learning?
- Do you have sufficient access (e.g. consistent bandwidth) to video-based courses?
- Can applied sciences (eg engineering) adopt a VBL style in their education?
- Could VBL be accepted as an alternative training tool for engineers? (considering that the professional field is highly regulated)
- What could be taught (in online undergrad programs) through VBL and what should stay in the classroom?
Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of educational videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf
Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4), 1-6. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125
Kizilcec, R. F., Papadopoulos, K., & Sritanyaratana, L. (2014). Showing face in video instruction: Effects on information retention, visual attention, and affect. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. CHI ’14, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2095–2102.
Origin Learning. (2020, October 16). The Relevance of Video-based learning. [Blog]. Origin Learning. https://blog.originlearning.com/the-relevance-of-video-based-learning/
Ouimet, B. T. C., & Rusczek, R. A. (n.d.). Video-Based Learning Objects.
Lynda.com from Linkedin. (n.d.). Become an Instructional Developer. Lynda.com [Website]. https://www.lynda.com/learning-paths/Education-Elearning/become-an-instructional-developer
Pappas, I. O., Mikalef, P., & Giannakos, M. N. (2016). Video-based learning adoption: A typology of learners. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 34–41. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1680.2163
Sablić, M., Mirosavljević, A., & Škugor, A. (2020). Video-based learning (VBL)—past, present and future: An overview of the research published from 2008 to 2019. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09455-5
Weller, M. (2020). 25 Years of Ed Tech. Athabasca University Press.
Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions [Paper presentation]. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.