Exploring Design Models

     I have a love/hate relationship with writing this blog and often it applies to the whole program. On one hand, I hate it because I have no instructing experience and therefore I have nothing interesting or unique to say about the subject. I also find it boring to regurgitate the information I learned from assigned readings. It’s killing my soul to put out these bland posts. On the other hand, I love reading blogs of other students because they contain the useful personal experience and valuable insights.

     What are some things to consider when selecting a design model? I don’t know, therefore I have to turn to the experts. According to Dousay (2018), it is important to consider the anticipated delivery format, if the instruction will be synchronous online, synchronous face to face, asynchronous online, or some combination of these formats. How do I make design decisions? It helps to have a model or process to follow once it is selected. For example, The Gagne-Briggs model describes not only how to create instruction but how to determine the content (Gagne et al., 1988). What I liked about it is that it breaks down the learning process into 9 steps, although it seems to be more appropriate for a synchronous face to face instruction. 

1. Gain Attention
2. Inform learner of objective
3. Stimulate prerequisite recall
4. Present stimulus material
5. Provide learning guidance
6 Elicit performance
7. Provide feedback
8. Assess performance
9. Enhance retention and transfer

Every model has its own set of principles and processes. I’ve never actually used one, but it seems that breaking down a learning process into smaller chunks should be helpful in making design decisions. Which model would I choose? According to Dousay (2018) “instructional design models seek to help designers overcome gaps in what is learned due to either instruction, motivation, or resources.” I have some experience in group facilitation where many participants lacked motivation, so ARCS-V model created by Keller (2016) sounds interesting. It breaks down motivation into four variables: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. These four variables are used in a Motivational Design Process which has 10 steps. 

1. Obtain course information
2. Obtain audience information
3. Analyze audience
4. Analyze other course elements
5. List objectives and assessments
6. List potential tactics
7. Select & design tactics
8. Integrate with instruction
9. Select and develop materials
10. Evaluate and revise

What I liked about Keller’s work is that he doesn’t just provide a model and 10 steps to guide a design process, he also discusses various tactics and strategies to keep the students engaged and motivated.

Dousay, T. (2017). Chapter 22. Instructional Design Models. In Foundations of Learning and Instructional Design Technology (1st ed.).

Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1988). Instructional design. Rinehart and Winston Inc, New York.

Keller, J. M. (2016). Motivation, learning, and technology: Applying the ARCS-V motivation model. Participatory Educational Research3(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.16.06.3.2

Education in 2030

How are you, my cousin Ally?

I feel bad that we sort of lost touch. Isn’t your lovely Sofia about to start school, just like my daughter? The last time we spoke, you were asking me about the education system in Canada. Well, a lot has changed since 1997 when I moved here. Can you believe it’s been 33 years? Remember, how I used to copy your homework in a chemistry class because I hated it too much to study, but still wanted to get a good grade to show my dad because he was a chemical engineer? Well, in Canada chemistry is no longer a mandatory class in high school! The most interesting development is that the grading system has been eliminated from about half of high schools. It started with a pilot project in 2013 (Nixon, 2017) and the concept was gradually accepted by many others. At the moment, a parent can choose between two different approaches. You are probably wondering how this divide came to be. Well, there are several reasons for it. One of the main anti-grading arguments is that grades do not motivate students to learn, because learning is about intrinsic motivation while grades act as extrinsic motivation (Blum, 2016, p.96). The domination of extrinsic motivation is claimed by Blum to have a negative effect because “extrinsically motivated workers act in accordance with a “minimax” strategy: They attempt to perform the bare minimum of work sufficient for the achievement of maximal rewards.”(Kruglanski et al., 1977, p.141). At the same time, grades do not provide a proper understanding of student’s knowledge and abilities because they assume the uniformity of input, process and output, although every student has a different life and academic experience (Blum, 2017). Moreover, 56 % of students reported being stressed about grades (American College Health Association, 2013).

While my personal experience confirms that the grading system is flawed as described, I wanted to explore the other side of the argument and find out why the grading system persists and is still acceptable among students and parents. Diseth et al., (2020) claim that “that there is no necessary contradiction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation”(p. 972) and argue that the relationship between them and learning is more complex than once thought. Furthermore, Covington and Mueller (2001) claim that every student differs in what motivates them depending on their personality traits, some are driven by intrinsic motivation while others are more motivated by extrinsic motivation.

Perhaps, there is a place for each approach within a system. If one approach doesn’t work for my son, it’s good to know that I can transfer him to a school relying on a different approach. It’s also interesting how the increase in the use of Artificial Intelligence(AI) is affecting both systems. After Chui et al.(2020) were able to demonstrate that they could predict with a 90+% accuracy at-risk student via a machine learning algorithm, the traditional grading educational system (TGES) has started using AI to identify at-risk students so that they could be better supported. The eliminated grading educational system (EGES) could not take advantage of these learning algorithms because they heavily relied on grades. As a result, TGES has a lower drop-out rate and is considered a safer choice by parents who are worried about their kids’ performance. It has a reputation for producing well-rounded graduates. At the same time, EGES started using AI to identify gifted students. It all began after Hodges & Mohan (2019) claimed that “Where machine learning can be best utilized by researchers and educators is in classification tasks using nonlinear indicators. An example of a nonlinear indicator is a student academic product like a poem”(p.243). After eliminating grading, EGES naturally relied on paying more attention to non-linear indicators. Compared to TGES, EGES has a higher drop-out rate, but it is considered a better choice by parents who believe their kids have higher potential. It has a reputation for producing more exceptional graduates.

Academic learning is not everyone as you know, Ally. My oldest son was never into reading, as much as I tried to encourage him. I hope all those evenings of me reading to him at least gave him something, if not the love for learning and reading. Lucky him that all schools nowadays, regardless of the system, have AI assessments of non-academic talents. It was already possible a decade ago when Muazu Musa et al. (2019) demonstrated that a machine learning approach can predict an athletic high potential by analyzing physical fitness indicators. Who would’ve thought that my son has the potential to be among the top 5% in water polo? He really enjoys playing for his school team, they are very competitive in a junior national league!

Do you remember how back in the day teachers used to ignore someone who was having a rough day or simply told them to suck it up? Oh, how times have changed. Nowadays, AI is used in schools to identify and predict mental health problems. What’s great is that not only it pays attention to multiple variables, as Tate et al.(2020) demonstrated thatthe model did not overly rely on any variable, thus the model would be relatively stable with the removal of any one variable, including those stable over time”. This means that if my son’s classmate calls him an asshole and hurts his feelings, but they make peace the next day, it won’t be reported to a school counsellor as a potential mental health problem. It might even help with eliminating bullying, although much of it happens online rather than in-person. The last time I spoke with a school principal, I was told that AI is being used to detect cyberbullying as well. Much progress has been made since Wu et al. (2020) created algorithms for bullying detection.

All these benefits come from increasingly invasive data collection, which concerns me as a parent, but I hope we can discuss it in our next conversation.

References

American College Health Association. (2013, September 11). Canadian Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2013. https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/ACHA-NCHA-II_CANADIAN_ReferenceGroup_ExecutiveSummary_Spring2013.pdf

Blum, S. D. (2016).“I love learning; I hate school”: An anthropology of college. Cornell University Press.

Blum, S. D. (2017, November 14). Ungrading. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/advice/2017/11/14/significant-learning-benefits-getting-rid-grades-essay

Chui, K. T., Fung, D. C., Lytras, M. D., & Lam, T. M. (2020). Predicting at-risk university students in a virtual learning environment via a machine learning algorithm. Computers in Human Behavior, 107, 105584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.032

Covington, M. V., & Müeller, K. J. (2001). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation: An approach/avoidance reformulation. Educational psychology review, 13(2), 157-176.

David Nixon. (2017, February 5).B.C. leads the push to eliminate letter grades from school report cards. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/bc-leads-the-push-to-eliminate-letter-grades-from-school-report-cards/article33907027/

Diseth, Å., Mathisen, F. K., & Samdal, O. (2020). A comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among lower and upper secondary school students. Educational Psychology, 40(8), 961-980. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2020.1778640

Hodges, J., & Mohan, S. (2019). Machine learning in gifted education: A demonstration using neural networks. Gifted Child Quarterly, 63(4), 243-252. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016986219867483

Kruglanski, A. W., Stein, C., & Riter, A. (1977). Contingencies of exogenous reward and task performance: On the “Minimax” Strategy in instrumental Behavior1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7(2), 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1977.tb01335.x

Muazu Musa, R., P. P. Abdul Majeed, A., Taha, Z., Chang, S. W., Ab. Nasir, A. F., & Abdullah, M. R. (2019). A machine learning approach of predicting high potential archers by means of physical fitness indicators. PLOS ONE, 14(1), e0209638. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209638

Tate, A. E., McCabe, R. C., Larsson, H., Lundström, S., Lichtenstein, P., & Kuja-Halkola, R. (2020). Predicting mental health problems in adolescence using machine learning techniques. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0230389. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230389

Wu, J., Wen, M., Lu, R., Li, B., & Li, J. (2020). Toward efficient and effective bullying detection in online social network. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 13(5), 1567-1576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-019-00832-1

Make Personalized Learning Great Again

I suspect the last time Personalized Learning was great when Plato was learning what he wanted (philosophy) from who he wanted (Socrates).

Personalized learning is often equated to learning with a computer or technology-based instruction and while technology has an important role to play, it should not replace or overshadow a structural reform of the educational system. This is how I envision an ideal future for my son, who will be in high school in 2030. His strengths, needs, skills and interests are regularly assessed through a series of interviews by one or several educational psychologists who create a personality profile. This profile will be updated by each of his subsequent teachers. It is used to help him choose a direction in his education as well as individual courses that fit that direction. There are no mandatory courses. For each individual course, he gets to choose his own teacher (since technology allows it, maybe even out of thousands of teachers across Canada) or even multiple teachers. Perhaps that is how he also gets to choose what he learns in that course. Let’s say if it’s Psychology, he gets to pick individual theories he is interested in. No more memorizing useless information for tests. I doubt that Socrates was giving multiple-choice tests to Plato and grading him. Abolishing tests altogether might not be a bad idea. For admission to higher education, a comprehensive personality profile built over 10 years of school can be used along with a series of interviews and oral presentations of accumulated knowledge.

Is this likely to happen in Canada? Not in 10 years. The inertia of the existing system is too strong to overcome. It can only happen in a built from the scratch alternative system. If it does happen in the distant future, who is more likely to take the risk, a public system or private enterprise? 

People in the field

Mary Jo Madda is a math and science teacher that turned into a journalist. Before jumping into a new field, Mary had some serious experience under her belt, she made a training curriculum for teachers looking to create digital media to use in their classrooms. After her transition, she soon became a senior editor at https://www.edsurge.com/, a community of education technology entrepreneurs and educators, before moving on to the role of a Creative Strategy Manager for education initiatives at GoogleShe still writes for EdSurge.

I picked Mary because of her contribution to building a community of educators and covering a variety of topics related to education. Since the role of an educator is new to me, i find it important to have access to the experience and ideas of others in the field.

I liked that Mary’s articles ranged from silly
“He Had No Pants on” 10 Awkward, Human Moments in the Move to Online Learning

to serious
Confronting the Realities of Sexual Harassment in Education and Edtech

from dry
Not Just Numbers: How Educators Are Using Data in the Classroom

to controversial
White Fragility in Teaching and Education: An Interview With Dr. Robin DiAngelo

EdSurge also has a podcast where relevant ed-tech topics are discussed. After gaining speaking experience on a podcast, Mary moved on to bigger audiences.  She was a speaker at SXSWedu, various universities and appeared on TedX. In this particular talk Mary looked back at the failures of the past “Why technology can’t fix education”  but she also did other talks about success in the future What Skills Will Students (Really) Need to be Successful in 2025 and Beyond?

Mary Jo Madda is not a worldwide or even national celebrity, educators rarely are, yet she is a good illustration of how women contribute to the field. 

blogs and video as a window into your soul

I learned the hard way that blogging and making video content is not just about sharing knowledge or information. It’s also about providing a window into your soul. Are you passionate about what you teach? Did it transform you into an interesting person? But why should it matter if you are teaching a subject that is interesting by itself? Well, Lin & Huang confirm my own experience that “the charisma of a teacher has an obviously positive influence on students’ interest… no matter what that interest is” (2016).  Blogging allows an opportunity for your true character to shine through and while you can shield yourself with the wall of text, the video leaves you nowhere to hide. I realized how important it is to have such a window into someone’s soul when I was looking for a psychoanalyst. A few of them had short articles or abandoned blogs on their websites, but none of them had any video content. It’s not surprising, counsellors and psychotherapists, regardless of school of thought, are taught to reveal as little as possible about themselves. The main reason is that therapy is client-focused, the therapist stays in the background and for the most part, steps forward when summoned by the client. Once in a while, the therapist shines a light at something that the client can learn about. It is considered beneficial to remain hidden from the client at that moment because people often perceive therapists as different from an average person, perhaps less flawed or more enlightened.   The cloak of darkness keeps up the necessary illusion. And it is necessary because how do you learn from someone who, let’s say, picks their nose, how do you receive healing from someone who fights with their kids, how do trust someone who betrayed their spouse, how do you share your secrets with someone who’s bored to death by them?
Revealing yourself, whether in the session or through blogging or video on your website, often conflicts with the nature of the profession and yet as a client I was searching for a window into their soul. I was anxious, I wanted to know, will I like that person? Is it a good match? Is it someone I can trust? Can I learn anything from them about myself? Are they able to help me? As I am about to start my own private practice as a counsellor, I’d like to break this tradition and get actively into blogging and provide lots of video content. Hopefully, it will answer the same questions others will have about me. I might pay a price that I will not like. It might cost me many potential clients, but maybe it’s best to lose someone who looks into my soul and does not see what they are looking for.

References

Lin, S., & Huang, Y. (2016). Examining charisma in relation to students’ interest in learning. Active Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 139-151. doi:10.1177/1469787416637481

 

The return of the sage

re: 25 years of Ed Tech by Weller

    The sage is dead. We live in a world where modern science is advanced by many, we no longer see individual scientists rise to the fame of Einstein or Darwin. Thus the shift in the role of the educator from “the sage on the stage” to “the guide on the side” seems natural. It might work in some or even most fields, yet it feels wrong when it comes to teaching personality psychology. The main reason is that psychology is not an exact science. There are behaviours, but they are open to interpretation. There are categories, but they are fuzzy. The only way to understand theory is to apply it in social interactions, make many mistakes, analyze your mistakes and repeat this process until you start making so few mistakes that you become a sage. Most people don’t like to make mistakes. Most people don’t like to admit they made a mistake. It is easier to accept constructive criticism if it comes from someone significantly above you in a hierarchy of competency, rather than below or at the same level. It takes a sage to make other sages. Constructivism in psychology, without the presence of a sage, often makes things worse because learners construct their own interpretations of an already fuzzy science. Consider a seemingly simple task of determining whether someone is an introvert or an extrovert. There is an extensive theory that can be used to teach someone to relatively easily detect extreme cases, but no theory can help differentiate an inborn introvert displaying a learned preference for extroverted behaviours from an inborn extrovert displaying a learned preference for introverted behaviours. There is no blood test for it. There is no 100% (or even 75%) accurate psychological test for it. It takes a sage to see that difference because they’ve seen this pattern in thousands of variations and developed a very nuanced wisdom that cannot be shared and absorbed through language only. It can only be acquired through practice. Sages make mistakes too, therefore worshiping them on the stage no longer makes sense, but they can still play an important role on the side. Replacing them with a guide is a disservice to learners.

 

George Veletsianos’ session on research

It is probably too early to worry about doing an actual research project, since it’s more than a year away. And yet it already feels like a heavy weight mostly because I am not sure where to begin or what questions to ask. That’s why George Veletsianos’ session was so useful. It helped me realize that it is normal, I am not alone, many MALAT students feel the same.

At the beginning of this course I was not aware of research ethics. By the end of it, I was under the impression that it’s way too complicated.  It was good to hear from George Veletsianos that someone will guide us through the process. He calmed my fears that submitting a research proposal to REB is not in any way similar to going through a judgment day and I will not be sent to eternal hell for ethical violations.

I also found it interesting that I can choose to do my research outside of Canada, since I still have ties to Ukraine, where I was born and raised. Although it seems somewhat limiting, especially considering the very likely possibility that it will be less relevant to Canada and my future career here.

CC video reflections

I have always struggled with the issue of piracy discussed in a video. My views on it have changed over the years and I still switch sides from time to time depending on the context. Could it be due to the possibility that it’s not a black and white issue? In the example of farmers modifying the software, I can agree with arguments on both sides. As a tractor owner, I would wish to enjoy the freedom of doing whatever I wish with my property. On the other side, as a manufacturer I would wish to retain some control over access to the software. Perhaps, both sides are extreme in their approaches and if there was a desire to find compromise, some sort of win-win resolution could be achieved?

Like many students, I have been in situations where paying $100-$200 for multiple textbooks meant making uncomfortable adjustments to an already pitiful lifestyle. They reminded me of how poverty does not help in making ethical decisions. In a survival mode, I found it hard to think about others, my needs were too pressing. As a young student, I was also a consumer with not much to offer to society. When I became an adult and started playing a role of a creator, my perspective has drastically changed. I realized how much time, energy and sacrifice it takes to create anything of value. To have it pirated is painful. Some creators adapted by giving away some of the content for free or even welcoming the unsanctioned distribution of their content, which serves the purpose of reaching a bigger audience. Once they become relatively known, they can harvest income in some other ways. Nowadays, I lean towards this approach.

It was interesting to learn how different layers of Creative Commons licencing address some of these issues. The official CC website is much more in-depth, it’s definitely going into my bookmarks. 

 

What makes a good research question ?

I suspect the answer to this question will vary depending on the researcher. For me it has to have several components:

  • It must stimulate my curiosity. I need to be passionate about the subject otherwise, I won’t be motivated to dig deep enough.
  • It must have practical implications. If the question is too abstract or too general to have a low potential of making a positive impact on daily life, I won’t be motivated to look for answers.
  •  It must be realistic. If there is a very low probability of finding answers, I won’t even start looking into it.
  • It must lead to new knowledge. If the question has been properly answered before, why put any effort into it.
Ideally, these aspects must all be present at the same time. “It is imperative that all four constructs—the problem, purpose, significance, and research questions—are tightly aligned and intricately interwoven” (Grant & Osanloo, 2014)

References

Grant, C., and Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, selecting, and integrating a theoretical framework in dissertation research: Creating the blueprint for your ‘house’Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice, and Research. DOI: 10.5929/2014.4.2.9

 

Assignment 1 Part 2, Reflection paper

Create, Cultivate, and Reflect on your Digital Presence

Assignment 1 Part 2

Atkins and Murphy (1994) provided a model of reflection, which I found useful for writing this paper and decided to follow their 4 stages of reflective practice.

Stage 1:Awareness of uncomfortable feelings.

While cultivating my digital identity and digital presence I realized that on my Youtube channel I focus too much on the knowledge I’m trying to share in to avoid being known. My channel is educational, therefore in most videos, I explain various psychological theories and use them to analyze real-life situations. Yet you won’t see me talking, just hear and you won’t hear much about why this is important to me or how it applies to my life. Hiding behind the material helps me deal with the discomfort of being seen or known. Being seen and known makes me uncomfortable and yet I yearn it. It’s not a mystery why, I have a highly critical father who never finds anything positive to say to me and never misses an opportunity to point out my flaws. It’s bad enough that I project my critical father onto everyone, which makes me feel nervous before anyone can provide any feedback, but I also internalized my father. I always criticize myself harsher and quicker than anyone can do. The negative father complex (Nix, 2011), as well as defence mechanisms developed around it, are hindering my digital identity and digital presence. It became even more evident to me after unit 5 reflection activity. I recorded a quick and generic video of me not saying anything interesting or in-depth about my plan and experience following it. Not thinking much of it, I posted it on my blog and moved on to check out videos of other fellow students. They were much longer, much more interesting and detailed, personal and authentic. Everything I strive to be and do, yet I don’t. Why did I put out such a lazy and boring video? I felt uncomfortable talking about myself without anyone asking. And if someone does ask, I find it hard to believe it’s not just them being polite. Does anyone care about what I have to say? My father didn’t, so I learned to keep it to myself. I learned to stop caring about my own experience. Why should people care anyway? Why should anyone in the world care? My father, whom i loved very much and idealized as child, was my whole world, his personality was bigger than a world. And this world was not interested in me, so whenever I am asked to be interested in my experience and share it, I feel uncomfortable and I shut down. I run away from it like a plague to avoid feeling uncomfortable. It is one of the reasons why I like being a counsellor and an educator. I can focus on giving people what they need instead of talking about myself.

I also find it difficult to spend time on something I don’t find interesting. Curiosity is my main drive. I feel uncomfortable following a routine or doing what needs to be done because it takes away my time and energy from what I am passionate about. Cultivating my digital identity and digital presence involves content marketing and personal marketing, which feels like something I need to do rather than what I want to do.

Stage 2: Examination of components of the situation and exploration of alternative actions.

What drives the desire to have a digital identity? Ertzscheid suggested that there is a connection to Maslow’s pyramid of needs (2016). I attempt to satisfy the need for self-esteem and self-actualization through my digital presence. As I look back on my initial plan to develop my digital identity and digital presence, I realize now that I look for a confident, skilful and guiding hand to satisfy my need for self-esteem and self-actualization. In my plan, I expressed a desire for outsourcing to fill gaps in my skills and knowledge. I keep searching for a father figure, who will believe in me and help me come out of my shell so that I can be seen and known. So far, my efforts produced no results. People, that I approached to become my partner, saw no benefit for themselves. An alternative would be to hire, as I mentioned in my initial plan, a personal brand developer. Why haven’t I done it yet? I don’t believe that my digital presence is significant enough, there is not much to develop and my Youtube channel only has about 50 videos. I plan to rely mostly on Youtube in building digital presence because “on average, videos led to better learning outcomes compared with other methods”(Noetel et al., 2020). I don’t enjoy blogging, therefore I’m not going to keep an active blog outside of MALAT program, but I will put up all my writing on a WordPress website mostly to have a point of reference. I already purchased a domain name and I am looking for an affordable hosting service.

I am at the crossroads when it comes to my professional life. I just quit my job because I don’t enjoy trying to help people that are resistant to help. As I mentioned in a previous assignment, in social services relationships with care providers are rarely sought out and usually resisted (Rooney & Mirick, 2018). Lack of choice plays a major role in resistance (Ritchie, 1986). Based on this evidence and my experience, I do not ever wish to work again as a counsellor for a non-profit organization. I still enjoy being a counsellor and I like playing the role of an educator, how do I combine both into one? Over the next 3 months, I will be travelling with my family in the RV all over Canada and trying to find an answer to that question. These aspects of my personal and professional life are already impacting my decisions when it comes to content creation. At the moment, I am seeking out volunteers willing to be anonymously interviewed about their personal lives for financial compensation. These interviews will be used for testing a new personality assessment that I have developed. I will be sharing the results and the method itself on my Youtube channel because of its relevance to determining personality compatibility in relationships. I have already conducted a few interviews, which is a very similar process to counselling sessions I am used to, except the participants are willing and fully engaging. And I have already started analyzing the material and writing content for the future podcast series on my Youtube channel. So far it feels like an exciting fusion of counselling and educating roles, but is there a demand for this product in real life?

Stage 3: Summary of outcomes of reflection or learnings.

One of the main revelations has been so far is that digital identity is not the same as personal identity (Schryver, 2013). Personal identity can be a by-product of just being, it requires no extra effort if I don’t wish to put in the extra effort. Digital identity is something to be constructed and maintained, as a reputation (Ertzscheid, 2016). Resident-visitor typology (White and LeCornu, 2011) helped me understand my digital presence. And making a plan for cultivating a digital presence and digital identity helped me identify gaps in knowledge and skills, as well as create a long-term vision. I realized that I focus too much on creating content because i enjoy it and don’t spend enough time on adding a personal narrative to it, for the reasons explained in stage one. I still believe it would be helpful to have someone help me build a personal brand, but it might be too early. For now, I will put more energy into weaving a personal narrative in my content. I want people to care. The debate activity helped me realize that sifting through a ton of information that I care little about can be exhausting. If I was more personally connected to the subject or people debating the subject, I’d want to keep coming back to it. That’s what I want from my audience, but I need to give them a reason to care. How do I do achieve that? I need to focus more on emotional expression and sharing personal meaning. What educational format would be more appropriate for it? After reading a theory of transactional distance (Dron & Anderson, 2014), I realized that I prefer a low structure, high dialogue format, which is more suitable for informal educational seminars.

Stage 4: Action resulting from reflection.

I am going to continue creating more content! Right now I am interviewing more volunteers and analyzing our conversations. When I am done with this project, along with previously created content, it will be uploaded to a personal WordPress website with a fancy custom made theme. When it reaches critical mass, let’s say 100 videos on Youtube and about the same number of articles on my site, I will join several online communities, be it Facebook or forums, and start actively engaging in discussions where I can refer to my content.

I am also looking at various personal brand developers to shortlist and ask for advice, as soon as I hit above-mentioned numbers. Meanwhile, I am working on overcoming my psychological issues and hopefully, it will result in a rise of self-confidence and a decrease of self-criticism.

References

Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994). Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard, 8(39) 49-56.

Dron, J, & Andreson, T. (2014). Teaching Crowds. Athabasca University Press.

Ritchie, M. H. (1986). Counseling the Involuntary Client. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 516–518. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01186.x

Ertzscheid, O. (2016). What is digital identity? Issues, tools, methodologies. Marseille: Open Edition Press. doi:10.4000/books.oep.1235

Nix, D. C. (2011, April 12). The Negative Father Complex. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from https://www.don-nix.com/the-negative-father-complex-2/

Noetel, M., Griffith, S., Delaney, O., Sanders, T., Parker, P., del Pozo Cruz, B., & Lonsdale, C. (2020, May 18). Are you better on YouTube? A systematic review of the effects of video on learning in higher education. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kynez

Ritchie, M. H. (1986). Counseling the Involuntary Client. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 516–518. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01186.x

Rooney, R. H., & Mirick, R. (2018). Strategies for work with involuntary clients. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/

Schryver, K. (2013, February 5). Who are you online? Considering issues of web identity. The New York Times blogs. Alternate link to the The NYT blogs site.

White, D. S., & LeCornu, A. (2011). Visitors and residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9)