Final blog – engagement

My background (education and career) is in psychology so I am naturally drawn to the motivational aspect of education. Engagement struggles are probably the only thing I can relate to when talking to other students in the program. I zone out when I read or hear them complaining about their own students, grading, administration, deadlines. I used to think I disengage because I can’t relate to their experience since I never worked as a teacher. Until I realized that I disengage because I do not want to an instructor. My engagement in the program has dropped to a dangerous bare minimum. I still want to graduate though. But how am I going to finish the remaining year? How much am I going to learn if my motivation is as low as it can possibly be? What can I rely on to stay afloat, if my internal resources are rapidly depleting?

The most useful thing I learned in this course is the importance of other people when it comes to engagement.
The team project was crucial, I felt like working together on a common goal made it more meaningful and increased my motivation as a result. It was also interesting to get to know each team member a little better. Everyone had their own unique strengths and talents, but what they all had in common is the ability to forgive me for being the weakest link, treat me fairly and engage me as their equal. I had to push myself harder to prove that I was worthy of being treated that way.
Irwin’s engagement was extremely important. It was the first time that I felt an instructor went beyond the responsibilities of their job. When someone actually cares to take the time and take a deeper look at what you are struggling with, it almost feels like a miracle.
I guess the lesson here is to seek out external resources when the internal ones are lacking. To not be afraid to ask for help. And to trust that it will come. To let go of the guilty feeling of being a burden.
This is my takeaway about engagement:

If I am struggling to engage, I need to help others help me. I might have little to no motivation of my own, but I need to reach out and be open to being filled with motivation by interacting with others.

Assignment 1: Critical Inquiry Part 2 – Team Awesomest Presentation

In our course for LRNT526, our team (Ash SeniniJonathan CarpenterKristin Beebe and I) has critically analyzed Video-Based Learning. We chose to examine a LinkedIn Learning course for our learning event.

We examined the applicability of this technology in terms of the 4 aspects:

  • Efficiency
  • Effectiveness
  • Equity
  • Engagement

For a brief overview of our research approach and findings, you can view our infographic

References

Astleitner, H., & Hufnagl, M. (2003). The effects of situation-outcome-expectancies and of ARCS-strategies on self-regulated learning with web-lectures. Journal of educational multimedia and hypermedia, 12(4), 361-376. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/14512/

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of Educational Videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.). Fast facts. Canadian Mental Health Association. https://cmha.ca/fast-facts-about-mental-illness

Garrison, D. R. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century: a framework for research and practice. RoutledgeFalmer. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287556984_E-Learning_in_the_21st_century_A_framework_for_research_and_practice_Second_edition

Jones, T. H., & Paolucci, R. (1999). Research framework and dimensions for evaluating the effectiveness of educational technology systems on learning outcomes. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.1999.10782266

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: the arcs model approach. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1250-3

Majeski, R. A., Stover, M., & Valais, T. (2018). The community of inquiry and emotional presence. Adult Learning, 29(2), 53–61.

Panesi, S., Bocconi, S. & Ferlino, L. (2020). Promoting students’ well-being and inclusion in schools through digital technologies: Perceptions of students, teachers, and school leaders in Italy expressed through SELFIE piloting activities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1563. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01563

Stodel, E. J., Thompson, T. L., & MacDonald, C. J. (2006). Learners’ perspectives on what is missing from online learning: Interpretations through the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(3), 1–24.

Weller, M. (2006). The distance from isolation: Why communities are the logical conclusion in e-learning. In Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: The Role of Context (pp. 182-196). 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

List of references for Team Awesomest presentation

References

Astleitner, H., & Hufnagl, M. (2003). The effects of situation-outcome-expectancies and of ARCS-strategies on self-regulated learning with web-lectures. Journal of educational multimedia and hypermedia, 12(4), 361-376. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/14512/

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of Educational Videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.). Fast facts. Canadian Mental Health Association. https://cmha.ca/fast-facts-about-mental-illness

Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century : a framework for research and practice. RoutledgeFalmer.

Jones, T. H., & Paolucci, R. (1999). Research framework and dimensions for evaluating the effectiveness of educational technology systems on learning outcomes. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.1999.10782266

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: the arcs model approach. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1250-3

Majeski, R. A., Stover, M., & Valais, T. (2018). The community of inquiry and emotional presence. Adult Learning, 29(2), 53–61.

Panesi, S., Bocconi, S. & Ferlino, L. (2020). Promoting students’ well-being and inclusion in schools through digital technologies: Perceptions of students, teachers, and school leaders in Italy expressed through SELFIE piloting activities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1563. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01563

Stodel, E. J., Thompson, T. L., & MacDonald, C. J. (2006). Learners’ perspectives on what is missing from online learning: Interpretations through the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(3), 1–24.

Weller, M. (2006). The distance from isolation: Why communities are the logical conclusion in e-learning. In Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: The Role of Context (pp. 182-196). 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

Team 1 (Activity 2) Video-Based Learning: a critical inquiry into best practices

By Kristin Beeby, Jonathan Carpenter, Denys Koval, Ash Senini

Video-Based Learning (VBL) has become a more prevalent tool used in education in recent memory. VBL allows both educators and students to reflect upon and enhance one’s learning process (Perez-Torregrosa et al., 2017, as cited in Sablić et al., 2020). Collectively, our team will examine the use of VBL in various contexts to determine the effectiveness of this learning technology.

VBL originates from the early 20th century, with films covering topics such as Differential Steering and WWII soldier training (Origin Learning, 2020).  VBL has grown since, now providing edutainment through video games and sharing platforms such as YouTube. To inform our critical research pathways and better understand the use of VBL, we will examine LinkedIn Learning’s (formerly Lynda.com) “Becoming an Instructional Developer” learning path (Lynda.com from Linkedin, n.d.). 

LITERATURE REVIEW

We began our critical inquiry research by conducting a broad literature review on VBL to identify various research topics and critical issues to explore. Literature reviews by Sablić et al. (2020) and Yousef et al. (2014) aggregate years of VBL research to generate an excellent overview on VBL, serving as a foundation for our research approach. Once all group members gained a basic understanding of the theoretical aspects of VBL through the readings, practical research topics emerged. The following VBL critical issues are the result of our broad literature review.

Practical Effectiveness of VBL

One benefit of VBL is to provide theoretical knowledge. During the pandemic, VBL became one of the few ways students could gain practical or hands-on experience as well. Determining how effective VBL is in delivering practical information depends on the specific context. For example, we would welcome a conversation with someone who learned the language through VBL, but would be wary of professionals, like doctors or engineers, who learned through VBL. 

Social Considerations

Another critical issue in applying new technologies is to avoid potential harms, as Weller warns, “technology has often negative social consequences,” (2020, p. 173). We know learning is a social process, and VBL could diminish the social component of learning and increase students’ sense of isolation (Kizilcec et al., 2014). If so, are there pedagogical or design solutions to counteract such social side effects, or does the cost outway any benefits?

Student Engagement and Motivation 

Like classroom-based learning, VBL requires a considerable amount of planning and thought to engage learners. There are many variables unrelated to content quality that affect student engagement. Learner engagement variables include video length, annotation, accessibility, content delivery methods, level of cognitive load, social presence, and interactivity. Even though there is evidence that VBL can improve student learning and enhance student engagement (Brame, 2016), it can suffer from many of the same issues of classroom-based learning. The numerous technological layers of VBL pose many challenges and questions unique to this learning modality. 

Considerations for Design 

As with any learning modality, not all instances of VBL are created equal; therefore, it is essential to analyze the various elements of effective VBL design to deliver optimized learning outcomes and experiences. Effective VBL design empathizes with learners to promote VBL adoption (Pappas et al., 2016), initiates memory formation through appropriate learning theories and active learning principles (Brame, 2016), and sustains learner engagement through the use of interactive learning objects (Ouimet & Rusczek, n.d.) and production strategies (Beheshti et al., 2018). Further, VBL accommodates today’s mobile learner by integrating with multiple viewing devices, enabling on-the-go learning that compliments various learner needs, including strict schedules, conforming the demands of today’s and tomorrow’s educational consumer.

CONCLUSION

Like other digital learning tools, VBL has extensive and practical use in online education which can be seen in various mediums today. The prevalence of VBL allows users to gain practical knowledge in a given subject matter. From our initial examination, we will explore critical issues, including social implications, overall engagement, design and equity issues that can occur in the world of Video-Based Learning.

We encourage others with experience in the realm of VBL to comment on our pathway(s) and tell us your own experience with Video-Based Learning. Here are some guiding questions that may help you reflect on VBL:

  • Are there any particular aspects of educational video production that impact your ability to learn? 
  • Do you have a go-to VBL platform you prefer to use?
  • What motivates you to learn from the video?
  • Why is VBL that is used in institutional education often not as engaging as VBL used for personal learning?
  • Do you have sufficient access (e.g. consistent bandwidth) to video-based courses? 
  • Can applied sciences (eg engineering) adopt a VBL style in their education?
  • Could VBL be accepted as an alternative training tool for engineers? (considering that the professional field is highly regulated)
  • What could be taught (in online undergrad programs) through VBL and what should stay in the classroom?

REFERENCES

Beheshti, M., Taspolat, A., Kaya, O. S., & Sapanca, H. F. (2018). Characteristics of educational videos. World Journal on Educational Technology, 10(1), 61–69. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1170366.pdf

Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4), 1-6. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125

Kizilcec, R. F., Papadopoulos, K., & Sritanyaratana, L. (2014). Showing face in video instruction: Effects on information retention, visual attention, and affect. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. CHI ’14, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2095–2102.

Origin Learning. (2020, October 16). The Relevance of Video-based learning. [Blog]. Origin Learning. https://blog.originlearning.com/the-relevance-of-video-based-learning/

Ouimet, B. T. C., & Rusczek, R. A. (n.d.). Video-Based Learning Objects.

Lynda.com from Linkedin. (n.d.). Become an Instructional Developer. Lynda.com [Website]. https://www.lynda.com/learning-paths/Education-Elearning/become-an-instructional-developer

Pappas, I. O., Mikalef, P., & Giannakos, M. N. (2016). Video-based learning adoption: A typology of learners. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 34–41. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1680.2163

Sablić, M., Mirosavljević, A., & Škugor, A. (2020). Video-based learning (VBL)—past, present and future: An overview of the research published from 2008 to 2019. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09455-5

Weller, M. (2020). 25 Years of Ed Tech. Athabasca University Press. 

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., & Schroeder, U. (2014). Video-based learning: A critical analysis of the research published in 2003-2013 and future visions [Paper presentation]. ELmL – International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, June 2015, 112–119.

Does institutional education have to be boring?

I started asking myself this question in high school, continued to ask it in undergrad and here I am still wondering about it. Does a process of learning always have to produce some suffering? Must every learning journey include a path that we need to follow but don’t really want to take? If that is so, why does it often feel like there is more suffering than joy in institutional education?
     It is certainly unfair to place the responsibility onto the education system only. If I rephrase the question as “Why am I often bored?”, it points to a certain lack within me. I am responsible to some degree for what’s happening within me. I am flawed in many ways and it might just be another flaw of mine. But why can’t I stop myself from reading an interesting book till 3 am knowing that I am stealing time from sleep and that I will hate myself at 7 am for doing so when I have to get up and go to work. Perhaps, it is no one’s fault. There is just a gap between an individual and an institution. Is it possible to close that gap?
    Can video-based learning help close the gap or at least make it sufficiently narrow? We chose VBL as a team because all four of us find this medium engaging. While reading research papers related to VBL, it immediately struck me how many researchers suggest that there is an ideal video length when it comes to generating and maintaining student engagement. The general consensus is to keep it short. For example, Brame recommends making video lessons around 6 minutes long. Her rationale is that it manages intrinsic load and “it may decrease mind wandering” (2016, p. 3). Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic (“Cognitive load”, 2021). Did you interpret it as I did?
   So we need to create short videos because the content might require so much mental effort to understand it and it might be so boring unengaging that people can only handle 5-7 minutes of it. Am I the only one who is bothered by this? As a team, we chose the LinkedIn learning course, which follows the short video strategy. The content was not difficult to understand, but it did make my mind wander.
I went to Youtube instead and watched an extremely interesting lecture on psychoanalysis. It was 45 minutes long. While I occasionally watch short Youtube videos with a zero cognitive load such as music videos, cats fighting, drunken car accidents in Russia, I prefer long educational videos. Chess grandmasters teaching end game strategy, comedians teaching the art of creating a joke or a funny story, parenting experts teaching how to manage children’s difficult behaviours. A few days ago I watched a 2.5-hour episode of Joe Rogan’s podcast when a physicist Brian Greene came on as a guest and talked about black holes among other things.
I am sure that you all have your own curiosities that you are passionate about and can spend hours watching videos on the subject. Many of you are passionate about teaching.  Don’t you wish that video-based learning you encounter in institutional education was as engaging and as interesting as your favourite documentaries or educational Youtube videos you watch in your own spare time? Can you imagine watching hours of videos in this program and enjoying them? What would it take for that to happen? Is it really that naive to dream about a day when schools, colleges and universities provide video-based learning as engaging as Youtube? Does institutional education have to be boring?

 

References

Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE—Life Sciences Education15(4), es6. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125

Cognitive load. (2021, March 25). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_load

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 4, Activity 3 | Final Reflections

When I entered into the MALAT program, I hoped that it would help me transition from a career in social services to education. I wanted to become an instructor, so I was happy to get an opportunity to collaborate with other instructors and learn from them. What I learned over the year is that the academic environment and its structure are not the right fit for me. This course and the final project were the last nails in the coffin of my idea to become an instructor. While writing this project plan I kept asking myself why is it such a struggle for me? Sure, English is not my first language, so that is one obvious obstacle, but not the biggest one. Even when I speak Ukrainian I tend to use an informal lexicon and shy away from academic/formal language. When I speak English, the need to use a formal/academic language slows down my brain to an unacceptable degree. I also do not think like instructors do(this has become apparent after doing numerous team assignments and talking to other students in a MALAT discord chat). Some people say that academic writing is just like any skill that you can master over time, but writing assignments like the final one we just did, reminds me of how the formal/academic language is sucking the life out of my soul. It is the reason why I am never happy with the final result. I perceive it as just hideous because there is no life in it. It’s dead but forced to live like Frankenstein.
And yet this realization does not feel like a disaster. I still want to be an educator, but perhaps, my path lies outside of academia or the traditional education system such as school. Someplace that is less structured and less cultured. Somewhere where I can speak simply to people who appreciate simple language and don’t mind me swearing once in a while. I might have to stay in community services because I feel like my flaws are often seen as gifts here.
At the same time, I really appreciate all the concepts I learned in this course and this program. Even though I do not see myself as an active agent of change or a leader, I want to be useful to leaders as an educator or an expert, so learning about different leadership styles and project management was great. I feel like now I can offer a critical eye if I am asked. This course has once again confirmed my suspicions that the quality of anything I produce is directly related to how passionate I am about it. Looks like writing plans, proposal and policies does not consume my soul. There must be another way to support change. And hopefully, there is always a place for a passive supporter of change within an organization.

Unit 3, activity 2

     The Youth Transitioning program is dedicated to helping at-risk youth successfully transition to adulthood. Success is defined as the presence of positive outcomes such as independence, having a social network, life skills and goals, and the absence of negative outcomes such as homelessness, addiction, self-destructive behaviours and criminal activity. These outcomes are tracked through online reporting, which is a part of a database of past and current clients. Before, the daily reporting was not goal-based. It was calendar-based. “On December 14 at 5 pm, I met with J.W. and did this, talked about that”. Every 3 months a paper report of goal progress had to be completed, scanned and uploaded into the system. It was problematic for anyone outside of the program to assess its effectiveness. Imagine having to read hundreds, if not thousands of these individual or quarterly reports in any given year. This issue was supposed to be solved by a modification to the online database which would allow submitting goal-based reports. For example, you could create a goal “Get a driver’s license” or “Graduate from high school” and then either close it once it is completed or mark it as incomplete when the youth turns 19 and leaves the program. You could also generate a report of all complete or incomplete goals for individuals or all youth in the program. Sounds amazing, right? It was announced in advance and it took a while before it was done by a 3rd party software development company. The management clearly communicated the goal to make this change and help everyone adapt to it. I loved it and switched to it immediately following a training session. It was beneficial not just to our management and the government agency overseeing our non-profit company, but also to us, employees because it was a more efficient way to track progress. And yet many of my colleagues who were too used to the old system struggled with this change. More training sessions were offered. The management was patient and supportive. I think the planning and implementation were going well until it came to managing stakeholders. Which dragged on for months until three distinct groups appeared: those who completely switched to the new system, those who continued to use the old system and those who created their own mix of the two. I was just hired to work for another program within the same company, which has a different manager and it was revealed during the interview that they also use the same database, but no one switched to a new system. What were the barriers? I am not familiar with the new program yet, but I agree with Watt that “key stakeholders can make or break the success of a project. Even if all the deliverables are met and the objectives are satisfied, if your key stakeholders aren’t happy, nobody’s happy.” (2014, p. 42). It seems that not enough key stakeholders supported the change and those who supported it, did not push for it hard enough. In the end, it seemed that everyone in the Youth Transitioning program (me included) was happy with the outcome. Is this not a win-win solution? Although, I can imagine that the initiator of this change, someone either higher up or outside of the organization, would not classify it as a success. What would it take for the project to be fully implemented? Perhaps, it required several autocratic leaders (p.114) at various levels. It’s not the leadership style I prefer and I actively avoid working where it is employed, but if the change is required to be adopted and it is arguably a positive change, then perhaps the people within the organization should not be given a choice to ignore it. 

References

Watt, A. (2014). Project managementhttps://opentextbc.ca/projectmanagement/

Managing Change for Learning in Digital Environments

      In March 2020 a Youth Services department, where I worked at the time, switched to working from home. 90% of my job had nothing to do with education, I was a Youth Counsellor. I was also helping run a Life Skills program as a facilitator for a group of teenagers. Its purpose was to educate youth that was struggling with transitioning to adulthood. We were covering a variety of topics, from mental health and job search to budgeting and filing taxes. All of the educational materials existed on paper only. One week we were meeting in person, then the next week we started meeting through Zoom. Nothing else has changed. In June I left the company. Last week, I received a call from my former manager who asked me if I am interested in helping to create an online curriculum for a Life Skills program. She remembered that I was studying instructional design and thought we might be useful to each other. I am not sure what lessons I can take away about introducing rapid change. All I have is questions, such as why now? What, using the term from Lewin’s model of change, led to this unfreeze? Was there a reassessment of “whether the organization has the human, financial, material, and informational resources necessary to implement the change well?”(Weiner, 2009, p. 4) Regardless of which change management method is being used by the leadership, it is clearly on step 1 at the moment. 
As I have never been an agent of change in a digital learning environment, I don’t have my own approach yet. Although while reading about the various model of changes, I noticed that some of them, such as the ERA (evaluation, re-evaluation, and action) method, are customer-oriented and others, such as Lean Thinking, are more organization-oriented. It seems to be an important distinction because in non-profit organizations changes are rarely driven by customers. It might just be my cynical view based on experience but non-profits have no incentive to adapt to customers’ needs when customers don’t pay for services. Changes are usually attached to new funding and either come from newly introduced government policies or from newly written grant proposals that aim to capitalize on a fresh approach to an old problem.
Most change methods seem to require a leadership role to execute them. Since it is unlikely that I will be given any authority, I wonder how useful it is to develop my own approach before I learn about how limited the resources are, what the timeline of this project is, how much influence will I have and so on.
      What role does leadership play in managing change?
While Antwi & Kale suggest that “there are clear limitations to managerial action in making change”(2014, p. 8), they do play a role of a “Change Implementer” as defined by Kanter’s “Big Three” Model of Organizational Change (2003).
Biech (2007) provides a great list of responsibilities for the leader

Develops the vision
Provides input to the business case (probably irrelevant in non-profit )
Establishes a sense of urgency (good for the organization, not always good for the team)
Shows credible and unwavering commitment
Displays endorsement in actions and words
Responds to emerging issues
Directs the change implementation team
Communicates the vision constantly
Supports actions addressing reactions
Approves metrics
Holds others accountable to attain metrics
Delivers implementation plan
Holds others accountable to implement
Supports practices to institutionalize change
Implements rewards and consequences 
(if i assume an unpaid role, what consequences can i suffer?)
Stays the course
Removes barriers in the system (i love this one the most)

References

Antwi, M., & Kale, M. (2014). Change management in healthcare: Literature reviewhttps://smith.queensu.ca/centres/monieson/knowledge_articles/files/Change%20Management%20in%20Healthcare%20-%20Lit%20Review%20-%20AP%20FINAL.pdf

Biech, E. (2007). Thriving through change: A leader’s practical guide to change mastery. American Society for Training and Development. https://royalroads.skillport.com/skillportfe/assetSummaryPage.action?assetid=RW$1544:_ss_book:22651

Kanter, R. M. (2003). Challenge of organizational change: How companies experience it and leaders guide it. Simon & Schuster.

Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation Science4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-67



What are the most important attributes of a leader?

It depends on who is answering. Team activity 2 has shown that every follower has their own perspective and what’s interesting is that the leaders of our hypothetical leader could have a completely opposite perspective. While reading about different leadership styles, I found an article in which Mishra et al. claims that “though micromanagement leadership style is considered as a negative way of handling people and has earned a bad reputation, it can yield better positive outcomes if it is exhibited in a right manner in right time”(2019, p. 2950). Of course, this claim is not that shocking once you consider the title of the article “Micromanagement: An Employers’ Perspective”.
Looking back on my teenage years and most of my 20’s, I have defined a great leader by what they don’t do, rather than what they do. This is likely due to me not having a clearly defined value system yet and working at the bottom of a social hierarchy, where leadership skills are practically non-existent.  If I had to answer this question back then, I would have said my top 3 are:

  • does not yell and swear at me
  • does not micromanage
  • does not threaten to fire me

After I graduated from university and entered the field of social work I noticed that transactional leadership was the norm for most entry-level positions. I was content with “the exchange of rewards contingent on performance”(Khan, 2017, p. 179) because it felt like an upgrade.

In the last 5 years, I had several managers within the same organization, whose style I would describe as a mixture of adaptive and distributed leadership. They were flexible and delegated most of the decision-making, which I loved from day one.  My rankings in activity 2 is a reflection of that experience. Even though I had to compromise somewhat to come to a consensus within our team, our rankings still reflect my experience for the most part. I truly thought it does not get better than that.

Until I read about Value-Based Leadership, which lacks a precise definition but according to O’Toole “a true values-based leader is always to act on the behalf of one’s followers”(2008, p. 7).  Now, this is the approach of a leader I would admire, but how realistic is it? Can leaders like this even exist? The needs of employees rarely align 100% with the needs of an organization, which begs the question – how long will a leader, who always acts on the behalf of followers, last in an organization if he constantly goes against its needs?

References

Khan, N. (2017). Adaptive or transactional leadership in current higher education: A brief comparison. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning18(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i3.3294

Mishra, N., Rajkumar, M., & Mishra, R. (2019). Micromanagement: An Employers’ Perspective. International Journal of Scientific & Technology8(10), 2949-2952. http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/oct2019/Micromanagement-An-Employers-Perspective.pdf

O’Toole, J. (2008). Notes Toward a Definition of Values-Based Leadership. The Journal of Value-Based Leadership1(1), 1-10. https://scholar.valpo.edu/jvbl/vol1/iss1/10/