For teaching presence：
Strategy 1：Be present at the course site
Maintain frequency of presence via a variety of tools, whether these be virtual classrooms, emails, or texting, responding to learners’ questions in a real time manner (Boettcher, 2011).
Strategy 2：Reach out to students prior the course
Plan instruction and guide for students long before the course starts, devoting more time to guiding the students instead of preparing lessons. It helps students better prepare for the future learning (Eight Roles of an Effective Online Teacher, n.d.).
Strategy 3：Ask for feedbacks over the course
Response timely to students’ feedbacks and make adjustment when needed over the course – to treat the course in an agile model of course design, like a jazz combo (Bates, 2015) .
For Social presence：
Strategy 1：Encourage purposeful engagement
Encourage interaction, and relationships between members of the group is practical measures to maintain purposeful engagement in terms so social presence, practices regard this include setting the tone of openness, fairness, safety, and debate (Garrison et al., 2017).
Strategy 2：Establish diversified connection with students
Translate all communication ideas in the face-to-face setting to the digital environment, for example by sharing personal experiences, leaving feedbacks, synchronous conversation (SIP 10.10 Establish a Strong Social Presence Online – The Well, n.d.).
Strategy 3：Take advantage of the online discussion board.
Use online discussion board to establish conversation is a useful way for establishing social presence for all learners. Activities regarding this include asking questions, posting threads relative to courses, group discussion.
For cognitive presence：
Strategy 1：Give support for students’ understanding
Use discussions to encourage students discourse with questions so as to avoid any misunderstanding; Give directions and instructions to assist learners in moving beyond misconceptions; Provide indications of the connection of new knowledge with prior learning experience or knowledge, thus helping students understanding of new knowledge.
Strategy 2: Initiate practical application of knowledge
Use case study to help students understand the application of theoretical knowledge in addressing real-world problems.
Strategy 3：Encourage reflection
Design clear rubrics for learners’ reflection and assessment.
Organize peer-review activities to encourage students to exchange their understanding and reflection, based on precise rubrics for assessment.
Use discussions to encourage learners to share their own experience in applying what they have learned in real work contexts or their learning goals for the future.
These strategies are based on the ‘three Rs’ of student engagement presented by Littky and Grabelle, (2004).
- Relevance – prompting student curiosity and making connections to previous learning and knowledge.
- Rigour – asking students to solve problems that are meaningful to them personally.
- Relationships – designing a learning environment where students can work collaboratively.
Bates, T. (2015). Chapter 4.7 ‘Agile’ Design: flexible designs for learning. In Teaching in the digital age.
Boettcher, J. V. (2011). Ten Best Practices for Teaching Online Quick Guide for New Online Faculty. Designing for Learning.
Eight Roles of an Effective Online Teacher. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2021, from https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/eight-roles-of-an-effective-online-teacher/
Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Vaughan, N. D. (2017). Teaching in Blended learning environments – Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry. In E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice, Second Edition.
Littky, D., & Grabelle, S. 1970-T. A.-T. T.-. (2004). The big picture : education is everyone’s business LK – https://royalroads.on.worldcat.org/oclc/57225159 (NV-1 o). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10070403
SIP 10.10 Establish a Strong Social Presence Online – The Well. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2021, from https://sites.msudenver.edu/sips/sip-10-10-establish-a-strong-social-presence-online/