While various factors are taken into account when educators select design models according to discrete objectives, I will place emphasis on the following determining factors when selecting an instructional design model. The first thing is reflection of my personal experiences, the pedagogies I used to, thus lifting myself out of personal cognitive limits such as presupposition, entrenched stereotype of education, or any bias based on empiricism beforehand. The second thing is to set up course objectives as a reference point, which is imperative to choose a suitable Instructional Design model that aligns with the desired methodologies, materials and behaviors. Not to be left behind is the needs and learning behaviors of students，which are the basis for the design of course materials and pedagogies (Ertmer & Newby, 2013). The last thing to consider is learning approaches of courses, whether these be digital courses or classroom-based, synchronous or synchronous – it will decide which ID models to use based on their different features.
After the scrutiny of the key considerations beforehand, the next step is to choose the appropriate design model. During the process of design decision, I will follow the Plan, Implement, Evaluate (PIE) model from Newby, Stepich, Lehman, and Russell (1996), which helps focus on the employment of technology in instructional design (Dousay, 2017).
During the design decision process, the role of design models is to move the process to a desired state to meet the requirements of various stakeholders, whether these be students, instructors or institutions. Models is also conducive to the selection or development appropriate operational tools and technology during the design process (Dousay, 2017). By the same token, innovation provides alternative methodologies during the process, introducing uncommon tools or materials that may bring fresh learning outcomes to students.
Of various design models, the one that stands out as especially useful in making decision is the ADDIE paradigm. Its 5 stages clearly identifies learning objectives of the courses, with the design of materials and content, controls the task and workloads for faculty and students, the evaluation of learning outcomes. Apart from a tool that implement instructional design in a highly systematic way, ADDIE also serves to be a management tool that guarantees distant courses at a high standard (Bates, 2019).
Bates, A. W. (Tony). (2019). Chapter 4.3 The ADDIE Mode. In Teaching in the digital age (2nd ed.).
Dousay, T. (2017). Chapter 22. Instructional Design Models. In Foundations of Learning and Instructional Design Technology (1st ed.).
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/piq.21143