According to Pensky, digital natives are those that were born in the age of the internet and the evolution of digital technology. Therefore, they are totally comfortable with the digital environment and require new educational approaches. As well, Pensky supports that digital immigrants who learned to exist with the digital evolution will never be able to become as competent as the younger generations.

Surprisingly, Pensky challenged his original thinking (Pensky, 2009) and White critiqued that given the evolution of technology 10 years after, such a divide was redundant.  The use of technology not only as a tool to improve efficiency but also as a space for social interaction, made White formulate a new typology: Visitors and Residents. In both in his article (White and Le Cornu 2011) and his youtube video, he supports that an individual may approach the use of the internet and demonstrate digital literacy depending on the context of use and his/her motivation regardless of age.

Am I Visitor or Resident? Reflecting on this question after reading White’s article, watching his youtube video and performing my personal digital technology mapping,  I would agree that his Visitor/Resident typology is more appropriate. 

White’s explanation of Visitors is totally representative of my use of technology, although I use quite a few technology tools and the online environment for the purpose of performing personal and professional activities.

As with most Visitors, the “Internet of Things” (IoT) raises two main concerns for me: privacy and security (White and Le Cornu, 2011). Therefore, I seem to leave online footprint predominantly when using social media in environments where feedback for goods or services is shared and in environments that provide professional exposure and enhance marketability. However, I consider myself a Resident when it comes to using work-related tools and when I am motivated to use technology for professional or personal development purposes.


White, D. (2013, September 13). Just the Mapping. [Video file]. Retrieved from

White, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). doi: