The Educational Revolution

Reiser provided a very interesting take of the history on instructional media. I really enjoyed reading the sections on World War II; knowing that this is when overhead projectors were first introduced is really amazing. This same technology was still used in University for teaching when I was attending my post-secondary education. It has now changed to document cameras, screen casting, or just updated projectors. I used projectors when I did training seminars with my old job as a Territory Sales Representative. The concept of using this type of technology for training is something that hasn’t changed in over 100 years. The technology may have gotten better, but the actual technology medium or equipment and usage is still the same. That is pretty incredible.

Reiser states that “….enthusiasm and interest [in a new medium] eventually fade, and an examination reveals that the medium has had a minimal impact on such practices” (Reiser, 2001). This statement really grabbed me. I disagree with several aspects of this statement. The introduction of a new medium of technology is very exciting and always draws a lot of attention. Just look at the number of people that read or watch the Apple new product launches, but I don’t think that the interest fades, I think the medium becomes part of the norm. The initial excitement brings the medium to being used by everyone and with social media, that adaptation is quick. To say that these new mediums have minimal impact on practices doesn’t seem to hold true. Just look at computers or tablets. In my new position as an instructor, I take my iPad Pro to every class. It holds all of my educational materials, I can access my textbooks and online teaching materials, and I can hook it up to the University projectors or computers. This medium hasn’t had a minimal impact, it allows me to take a lighter and smaller device to do my work more efficiently. Yes, I could use a computer or laptop, but again those mediums had a great impact on educational practice as well. Without these devices, I wouldn’t be setting up online homework assignments, providing the readings ahead of times, or doing online quizzes each class for my students. My students use iPads or tablets every class to complete note taking, assignments, and quizzes. This portable iPad/tablet medium allows me to be more efficient and effective for my students.

After reading Weller’s article, I feel like even though technology is changing everyday, maybe we aren’t quite where we should be. Educational technology and the adaptation of technology within the educational industry has been quite slow. “….edtech is not a game for the impatient” (Weller, 2018). This is surprising given that technology has had such a large impact on education, by providing the ability for students to learn online. I think it surprises me because through providing online learning applications, shouldn’t technology be changing at a greater pace in order to stay relevant and give students the best learning environment and tools in order to succeed? With more and more educational institutions providing online learning platforms for students, I hope to see more change and advancement. I hope we can look back in twenty years and say, wow!

References:

Reiser, R.A. ETR&D (2001) 49: 53. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1007/BF02504506

Weller, M. (2018). Twenty Years of Edtech. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2018/7/twenty-years-of-edtech

History of Educational Technology

When I think about Educational Technology, I feel like it is such a broad term. So let’s start with a definition. “In today’s concept, educational technology can be defined as an abstract concept or as a field of practice” (Mishra, 2009). Mishra’s idea of it being “today’s conception” really stuck out to me (Mishra, 2009). Technology is a quickly changing industry and it’s very difficult to try and say what educational technology is because we don’t know where it is going or where it will be tomorrow. Looking at the goals of educational technology can help with defining it: cost savings, increases in production, improving accessibility, adapting to different learning styles, and more. The impact and reasoning for educational technology, is quite vast. Since we can’t look at what it is today or will be tomorrow, let’s look at the history.

Nicholson states that e-learning goes as far back as the 1960’s. Education, Business, Training and the Military all used computers in some form to support and enhance learning (Nicholson, 2007). There’s other documentation mentioning educational technology going back as far as the 1700’s. “Some early educators recognize that a technology of instruction must consider the development stages of the learner” (Saettler, 2005). In order to implement instruction, the appropriate technology for each stage of learning must be developed (Saettler, 2005). The history and where educational technology comes from, seems quite controversial between educators. I, personally, didn’t think of educational technology going so far back, but that just shows you how vast the definition of educational technology really is.

When I think of educational technology I think of the big box Apple computers that we used in school for typing class. There was a cotton tea towel that was placed over our hands, which were placed on the keyboards and this was to stop us from peaking at the keys. Then we had to type. ASDF JKL;. The lessons continued into sentences and paragraphs. From the time that I started learning on computers to now, about two decades, there has been extreme advancements within technology. With these advancements, education has also developed and grown. It has to adapt with the changes in technology. For example, using screen casting, lesson plans, teaching and communication apps, online homework and textbook options, as well as full office style programming. The changes have been vast in such a short amount of time; it is truly incredible what we now can do with technology. I can’t wait to see what tomorrow brings.

 

References:

Mishra, S. (2009). Educational technology: A definition with commentary – By Alan Januszewski & Michael

Molenda. British Journal of Educational Technology40(1), 187–187. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-

8535.2008.00925_4.x

Nicholson P. (2007) A History of E-Learning. In: Fernández-Manjón B., Sánchez-Pérez J.M., Gómez-Pulido J.A.,

Vega-Rodríguez M.A., Bravo-Rodríguez J. (eds) Computers and Education. Springer, Dordrecht

Saettler, L. P. (2005). The evolution of American educational technology. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Copyright Podcast Reflection

I have always found the idea and concept of copyright to be quite complex and rather scary. Having the opportunity to listen to Melanie Wrobel’s presentation was a great privilege. I would recommend this podcast to others who also struggle with this VERY important concept. I feel as though copyright is such an important concept because of the way and methods that information can now be distributed. Everyday there is copyright infringement. People are constantly using others’ pictures, words, or “unique expressions” (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

Melanie Wrobel provided a very informative and straightforward copyright podcast. The information was clear and easy to understand. I learnt so much from this podcast that I think this blog post would be pages and pages long if I were to put it all down to paper! There were several perceptions that Melanie was able to dispel during the podcast that I found particularly interesting. I will sum up a few of, what I feel like, are the major items or takeaways from the podcast.

With the advancements and instant ability to share or post information with the use of technology, I feel as though copyright is getting harder and harder to track. Melanie mentions that this is an ongoing issue (personal communication, June 13, 2016). Authors or creators, wouldn’t even know that there has been an issue of copyright unless they search and find it, someone finds it and brings it to their attention, or they use a copyright detection software (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I’m very eager to see what the future brings in order to get a handle on copyright infringement or whether further rule development will take place making more content fall under the Public Domain.

I didn’t realize the specific definition of Public Domain and how information is considered to be on Public Domain. Melanie mentions how most members of the public assume that works on the internet or anything without a copyright sign, are of Public Domain (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I was surprised to learn that this isn’t accurate. Public Domain or an expired term of copyright is when an author dies PLUS 50 years (personal communication, June 13, 2016). This makes me look at things very differently. The articles that we share on social media, the memes that we share, the posting content; copyright needs to be considered with them all. I think there could be drastic impact to social media if people really enforced their copyright to content and images.

Copyright in terms of research study participants was also very interesting! It’s not so much of a surprise that there should be copyright protection, but I think it is something that is being overlooked. Stories and ideas from research studies are often overlooked because of anonymity for participants. This is so important for researchers to consider before starting the study and to outline rules so that everyone is comfortable with how information that is provided will be used (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

The last point I want to reference was the information that was provided on the different types of licenses for Creative Commons. I had no idea that there were differences in the copyright of information and how that information can be used. It was absolutely eye-opening! I appreciated how Melanie provided the information on which licenses were most free and least free, but also how to make sure we were using the information properly or what type of license we should use and how we can get that information (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

After watching and listening to Melanie’s podcast, I feel like I have a much better grasp on copyright and the laws that there to protect us and others.

Reference

Wrobel, M. (2016). A Guide to Copyright [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://moodle.royalroads.ca/moodle/mod/page/view.php?id=347413

My Thoughts on Dr. George Veletsianos Q&A

Dr. Veletsianos provided some very detailed responses to the questions proposed by the five teams. The ethical question and response really stood out to me and stayed with me while listening to the other responses. The question was surrounding the ethics of today and the ethics of tomorrow. I was a member of the team that posed this question to Dr. Veletsianos and I felt like this was a tough question as the ethics of tomorrow is really an unknown. I really appreciated the position that Dr. Veletsianos took when answering this question. “Participant well-being should be taken from the very beginning, it should never be an after thought” (personal communication, August 16, 2019).  This was the focus of Dr. Veletsianos’ response to the question and he was saying that ensuring the well-being of the participants is the key to remaining ethical. You cannot predict the future, but you can make sure you are taking every precaution you can to ensure the well-being of your participants. I appreciated this thought and the undertone it took through some of his other responses. For example, with the question surrounding social media platforms and the use of such platforms in research. Dr. Veletsianos mentions that some platforms have an easier accessibility of information which can cause more researchers to use that platform, this can bias the results (personal communication, August 16, 2019). This would be unethical in my mind. Researchers could be knowingly “overusing” research information for their gain because it was easier to acquire. Even though it most likely hasn’t been disclosed, Dr. Veletsianos mentions to take this into consideration when looking at these types of research (personal communication, August 16, 2019). Having a bias result, isn’t respecting or ensuring the well-being of your participants. With the changes in research, the ethical issues will continue to develop and change along with it. Due to this constantly changing environment, I believe the issue of ethical behaviour will continue to be priority.

Reference

Veletsianos, G. (2019). Questions about Research for George Veletsiano [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yzG3Sqo0wImXN0tUf9dcjXODISiSYt9gH8_gJnMC_hY/edit

What Makes a Good Research Question?

When I think about what makes a good research question, there are two things that immediately pop into my mind:

  1. Clear
  2. Concise

A clear question that identifies what is the objective of the research being done. A concise question that provides the relevant information needed to ensure the research question is being appropriately answered.

I decided to further investigate, as I have always somewhat struggled when it came to research. I would start with what I thought was a clear path and I would end up somewhere completely different taking turns left and right.

When I looked at the Writing Centre there is an outline for the basis of a research question, “a research question should: be clear and specific; state the focus of investigation in the research; not be answerable with a yes/no response” (“Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library”, 2019).

Comparing what I had originally thought versus the information I was able to pull up, leaves the question itself. To expand on my original thought, I would include that a research question should include: who, what, where, why, and/or how. This ensures that the question would not be answerable with a simple yes or no.

 

References:

Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library. (2019). Retrieved from https://library.royalroads.ca/writing-centre/writing/structure/thesis-statements

The Impact of Digital Learning Environments on Educators

Prepared By: Sanjay Pottinger and Leigha Nevay

 

Digital learning environments have fundamentally impacted how educators perform their role; whether it is how an educator prepares to teach subject matter or how they teach in a fully online or blended classroom. It is clear that educators have had to adapt to the vast changes as technology has advanced. Below is a list of the impacts on educators within digital learning environments.

  1. Technology expertise: The vast majority of post-secondary institutions have online courses and use a learning management system (LMS) (Canadian Digital Learning Research Association, 2018).  A simple search on Google will retrieve lists of the hundreds of LMS’ available. Furthermore, a learning environment “can also be technologies, resources, platforms, and systems originally created for purposes other than education” (Veletsianos, 2016, p. 243), such as Facebook or YouTube. This has required educators to be much more digitally savvy than ever before to implement content and evaluation in various modalities. With quickly changing software and platforms, educators find it difficult to maintain the technical skills needed to expertly wield the features within an LMS, social media, and/or other technology mediums that can add to the learning experience of students online (Capra, 2011).

2. Instructional design: Educators transitioning from traditional, in class, or face-to-face instruction to teaching in a digital learning environment cannot simple convert in class material to online material. They either acquire the expertise or the assistance to develop well-designed online pedagogy and assessment. Tony Bates (2012), a leader in digital learning, suggests that an educator taking on an online course rethink their approach to ensure it fits an online learner. For example, an educator recording a lecture and putting it online or conducting a class discussion, has the same desired outcome as an in-class experience. As Morris and Stommel so aptly describes this impact:

We need to recognize that online learning uses a different platform, builds community in different ways, demands different pedagogies, has a different economy, functions at different scales, and requires different choices regarding curriculum than does on-ground education. Even where the same goal is desired, very different methods must be used to reach that goal (Morris & Stommel, 2016, para. 14).

3. Technology policy: With the changes in the availability and accessibility of information, educators needed to consider further development of regulations for online and in class. The internet allows students faster and easier access to copy others’ work. Even with the advancements in plagiarism technologies that allow educators to ensure that students are completing the work themselves, academic integrity remains a concern. Educators need to “know the rules of copyright and plagiarism and alternatives such as creative commons licensing; use appropriate referencing for digital materials and support learners to do the same” (Beetham, 2015). Furthermore, in class issues such as not paying attention in class or accessing inappropriate information require further guidelines. “Decisions on technology use and conduct are now common and have added an extra dimension of consideration for educators and administrators alike” (Cuban, 1992).

4. Scheduling: Having computers increased efficiency in the classroom, allowing for students to accomplish more. “Teachers from different departments or grades move towards changing the regular time schedule” (Cuban, 1992). Educators needed to reconsider work load, timetables, and daily schedules to account for the fact that students had so much more information available at their fingertips.

5. Teaching method: Within a digital learning environment, an effective educator will have to reflect on how to focus on the learner when teaching online content. Online learners need to feel that they are part of a classroom with other learners and not just a learner navigating an online space on their own, an issue that does not exist in a traditional face-to-face setting. Online learners interfacing with one another is crucial for the learning process. The instructor has to be intentional about creating meaningful social interaction within the online course or risk students feeling disengaged. Garrison, Anderson & Archer state that, “socio-emotional interaction and support are important and sometimes essential in realizing meaningful and worthwhile educational outcomes” (2000). Instructors must decide how they will transfer or facilitate information, what technological method available they will use to help students collaborate, and how they will interact with the online group (Bates, 2012).

 

References

Bates, T. (2012, May 6). Nine steps to quality online learning: Step 1: Decide how you want to teach online. Retrieved from https://www.tonybates.ca/2012/05/06/nine-steps-to-quality-online-learning-step-1-decide-how-you-want-to-teach-online/

Beetham, H. (2015, November 10). Framing digital capabilities for staff – deliverables. Retrieved May 31, 2019, from https://digitalcapability.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2015/11/10/framing-digital-capabilities-for-staff-deliverables/

Canadian Digital Learning Research Association (2018). Tracking online and distance education in Canadian universities and colleges: 2018 Canadian national survey of online and distance education Retrieved from https://onlinelearningsurveycanada.ca/download/556/

Capra, T. (2011). Online Education: Promise and Problems. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2(7), 288-293. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no2/capra_0611.pdf

Cuban, L. (1992, November 11). Computers Meet Classroom; Classroom Wins. Retrieved May 31, 2019, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1992/11/11/10cuban.h12.html

Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in text based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6

Morris, S. M., & Stommel, J. (2013). Why Online Programs Fail, and 5 Things We Can Do About It.  Retrieved from http://hybridpedagogy.org/why-online-programs-fail-and-5-things-we-can-do-about-it/

Veletsianos, G. (2016). Digital learning environments. In N. Rushby & D. Surry (Eds), Handbook of Learning Technologies (pp. 242-260). UK: John Wiley & Sons.

My Network

 

My digital presence is of medium size. I have so many accounts all over the place! My sharing and communicating online, is small, which actually made this exercise quite difficult!

I find that I can learn so much online, reading articles, reading the news, updates on how my friends are, and so much more. I find other peoples’ interests, interest me and I look into things more closely.”The spread of knowledge through a network closely resembles the spread of infection: learning is contagious”  (Kleinberg, 2007). For example, a friend of mine has become rather famous online due to her vegan posts. This made me curious to the options out there, as I have an allergy to milk. The more I read and learnt, the more disturbed I was by some of the practices out there. Especially when thinking about milk! My son also has an allergy to milk, so learning about the different substitutes available and baking that you can do, has been life changing for me.

I find I am joining more and more networking groups within online networking platforms. These groups are allowing me to grow professionally. “For a learner in a network, there is typically greater value to be found in diverse networks than in those that are self-similar. If a network consists of many different people with various skills and interests, then there is a far greater chance that someone in the network will have the skills and interests needed to assist with a particular learning goal” (Anderson, Dron, 2014, p. 155). I have been enjoying building my professional network, while I have actually reduced my personal network. I did a Facebook Friends purge, where I got rid of a whole bunch of people that I really don’t talk to. Why did I feel the need to have these people on my Facebook in the first place? We were never really friends, yet, it mattered! Maybe because we had so many mutual friends, maybe because I wanted to have a bigger friends number. As I have been focusing so much more on my professional network, I have realized, that I would like a smaller personal network. Something more manageable and controlled. Is that even possible when it comes to online?

My Network Mapping Breakdown:

I have broken down myself into the three versions of myself; professional, personal, and student. For my professional aspects, I have been looking to increase my online presence, making myself more available than ever before to clients, co-workers, and students. For my personal aspects, I have narrowed down my online usage, limited my personal information available online, and really looked at who has access to my information. For my student aspects, I have networked and made so many friends. I have also been a student for quite some time! I have been in some form of post-secondary since 2006! Once I finished a diploma, I kept on taking courses, moving on to my Degree, Professional Designation, Professional Development Certificates within the CPA, and my Masters.

If my map seems a bit chaotic, I think I have nailed this one on the head. My life is chaotic, that’s the truth. I have so much going on, but I love it. I love being busy, I love the rush, and I love knowing that I am accomplishing things.

 

References:

Kleinberg, J. M. (2007). Cascading behavior in networks: Algorithmic and economic issues. In N. Nisan, T. Roughgarden, E. Tardos, & V. Vazirani (Eds.), Algorithmic game theory (pp. 613-632). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dron, J, & Andreson, T. (2014). Teaching Crowds. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120235

My Digital Presence

Who am I online?

I was reading “Guest Post | Who Are You Online? Considering Issues of Web Identity” (Schryver, 2013) and I felt like this article hit me right in the gut…. Hard…. When it comes to my social media, I am private, but I share what I feel like is appropriate.

What is appropriate?

Definition of appropriate

especially suitable or compatible FITTING

(Merriam Webster)

I post what is happy. Not what is real. Not how I’m feeling, how I’m doing or the struggles of the day. I post what I feel is suitable for public content, not necessarily the whole truth.

My goal through this course and defining my digital presence, is to allow myself to be myself. To let my feelings come out in my writing.

I had my 1 on 1 with Elizabeth this week and I explained to her my idea for my digital presence. Will it change? Grow? Adapt to each course and learning I am undertaking? Absolutely! Or I at least, I hope so!

So here I am, “The Momfessional”.

This is me. I am a mom, I am a professionally designated accountant, and I want to confess. I want to be able to bring in my two worlds, let them collide and raise chaos. Then, I want to be honest about it. I want to confess what happened, how I struggled and persevered. My LinkedIn account will remain very professional. Through Twitter and my Blog, I hope to bring more of me and this identity I have cultivated for myself.

I am someone who craves control, works hard to make sure everything falls into place and lines up. Then I had my son…. Nothing went to plan, I had to let go. I like letting go.

Gardner Campbell said, “In building that personal cyberinfrastructure, students not only would acquire crucial technical skills for their digital lives but also would engage in work that provides richly teachable moments ranging from multimodal writing to information science, knowledge management, bibliographic instruction, and social networking” (Campbell, 2009). Let’s open up that learning portal and figure this out as well go. Let’s all let go together and see how paths deviate and twist and turn.

Working through the Unit readings has already helped me immensely in figuring out who I have been online. Who I was, maybe still who I am to some degree. Through the readings and learning that I will be undertaking, I can change, develop, and grow. By completing each reading and each course, I feel like I will gain knowledge and awareness of my areas of weakness and strengths, I can make this happen. Make it happen the way I want it to.

How do I measure such a personal challenge? This is something I haven’t figured out and I am ok with that. Maybe I will just know, my gut will know, and I will feel it! Maybe I can learn some tools to do this. We shall see.

I’m excited, are you?

References:

Schryver, K. (2013, February 05). Guest Post | Who Are You Online? Considering Issues of Web Identity. Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/05/guest-post-who-are-you-online-considering-issues-of-web-identity/?_r=0

Appropriate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/appropriate

A Personal Cyberinfrastructure. (2009, September 4). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2009/9/a-personal-cyberinfrastructure

Technology Mapping

 

This was a very interesting exercise for me. I spend a lot of time, especially during tax season, online! Whether it’s for work or because I can’t make it to the store to get groceries.

I really enjoyed reading the Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement (White & Cornu, 2011). I found the way that Residents versus Visitors was broken down, really opened my eyes to my usage habits online. “Residents see the web primarily as a network of individuals or clusters of individuals who in turn generate content” (White & Cornu, 2011). This quote has really stuck with me….

I have normally used online tools to keep in touch with friends and family all over the world. Once I had my son, I felt like most of my friends disappeared. It was the strangest thing, everyone was excited and happy for me, and then boom! Gone. To be fair, I was busy with a baby, but for some of my friends to vanish from my physical life, was a tough thing to go through. Being online and using Social Media tools, showed me what I was no longer a part of. I was hurt and it was hard. It made me not enjoy going on and using some of the tools.

Once I started my own accounting firm, I told myself I needed to get back to those tools and use them regularly again. I needed them to get the word out. I feel like my usage of Social Media, just as one example, has changed so much in just one short year. I went from being a very Personal user to being much more of an Institutional user.

When it comes to my online shopping, oh boy! I hope you all have Amazon stock! “…go into the shed to select the appropriate tool which they use to attain their goal.” (White & Cornu, 2011). This is me in a nutshell! I get my To Do’s for the day and everything I can do online, quickly and efficiently, I do! Time is of the essence around here, especially in April!

This map sums me up, I hope you all can understand a little bit more about me.

 

References

White, D. S., & Cornu, A. L. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday16(9). https://firstmonday.org/article/view/3171/3049

 

 

 

 

 

Virtual Symposium Reflective Blog Post

Farewell first week!

This week was an interesting week, as I was able to watch 12 videos this week. Some were live and some were recordings. I found it interesting that I actually preferred the live sessions versus the recorded sessions. I found myself enjoying the conversation and questions, following with other students thoughts and then trying to add to those questions or conversations. 

There was one presentation that I found especially intriguing, it was the “Key Success Factors for Virtual Teams” by Trish Dyck. As someone who has been involved with teams for majority of my life, whether through sports, online education, or work, I was very drawn to this topic. The idea of approaching learning with “a sense of curiousity” (Dyck, 2019) in order to figure out what style of teamwork works for me, was eye opening. I have always been a consistent learner, no matter what the type of educational delivery, I always followed the same pattern. I am very eager to try out some of the processes that Trish mentioned, including; “building a structure for the team, looking at relational processes, and using a team agreement to build a psychologically safe space” (Dyck, 2019).

Building a “psychologically safe space” (Dyck, 2019) was something that really triggered me. For good and bad reasons. Good because I feel like this is such an important concept and something that is not really considered when working in groups. There is this fairness and sense of equality between peers that should be prevalent. Bad because I have been that person that didn’t comfortable sharing due to feeling threatened and judged by my peers.

Once I finished this session, I started looking into the idea of a “psychologically safe space” (Dyck, 2019). I found this great article written in Forbes called “How To Build Work Cultures of Psychological Safety Rather Than Fear” (Caprino, 2018). Caprino’s article was an interview with Amy Edmondson and to say that I was blown away is an understatement. There were so many great points that allowed me to continue on my thoughts regarding this topic. “They are less worried about protecting their image and more focused on doing great work” (Caprino, 2018). This seems a like an obvious concept, and yet, teammates suffer. I believe we need to start with trust. By building trust, we may be able to avoid a normal course of human nature to be defensive and cautious. 

I found this one line summarized what I need to focus on within the “building a structure” (Dyck, 2019) phase with my teams, “Building a culture of psychological safety, paradoxically, starts with being open and explicit about the many challenges that lie ahead” (Caprino, 2018). This ties to having aligning personal and team goals and focusing on the “relational processes” (Dyck, 2019) in order to have a strong team structure built on trust by integrating an effective team agreement. 

 

References:

Dyck,T. (2019,April 17). Key Success Factors for Virtual Teams. Retrieved from

             http://ow.ly/W3ap50qIsg7

 

Caprino, K. (2018, December 20). How To Build Work Cultures Of Phsychological Safety Rather Than

             Fear. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2018/12/20/how-to-

             build-work-cultures-of-psychological-safety-rather-than-fear/#16e896186f69