Please click here to view my sources used regarding my topic, The Impact of the Blackboard on Education.
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By: Christina Jones and Leigha Nevay
When you need to get something specific done, you go see a professional with expertise in that area. Basic car maintenance is one of those things most people pay for, yet is surprisingly easy to take care of yourself. There is a large amount of knowledge on the internet with step by step instructions on how to take care of basic car maintenance. Searching “DIY Car Maintenance” resulted in 23.9 million sources of information. When searching “DIY Car Maintenance for Mazda CX-5”, 1.19 million sources were revealed. A further, more defined search of, “2018 Mazda CX-5 Oil Change”, resulted in 5.02 million results. When scrolling through these results, the content provided is relevant to what was searched. There are maintenance schedules, discussion forums, videos, as well as articles and journals all relating to the oil change service for a Mazda CX-5.
Due to there being an abundant amount of content and variation related to this topic, we found that defined searches were the most relevant format of research and created the best content results. This will provide information that is more directly correlated to what task you are completing. It is important to find the type of resource of information that best suits your learning capabilities. For the purposes of this exercise, we defined basic car maintenance as: checking and changing your fluids, changing your air filter, changing your wiper blades, taking care of battery maintenance, and changing your tires. There are many great articles outlining the steps required in completing basic car maintenance, some even specific to your make and model of car. These articles outline the amount of time required to complete the activity, tools required to complete the task, materials needed, and the money that you will save completing this yourself versus going into an auto service shop. The number of videos walking you through the steps far outweighs the written article content available for this topic and also varies from generic material to make and model specific material. There are also plenty of online discussion forums with resources on how to do certain maintenance on vehicles, as well as, the issues that people have run into while completing such tasks.
“This scale and range of learning related content at least raises the question of whether we have developed the appropriate teaching and learning approaches to make best use of it” (Weller, 2011, p. 226). With there being so many different sources of information, as a learner, you can pick and choose what type of information will work best for you. Educators would need to attempt to complete the task with the resource that was provided to ensure that the information is accurate. As an educator, you would need to find the content that speaks to the majority of your audience, perhaps using a combination of information sources. Starting with written material, then following with a video instruction, could have a stronger impact on the retention for students. Opening discussion forums for students to use while in practice is a great way of ensuring that the students were able to comprehend the information that was presented to them. This would also provide additional material and content back into the system, possibly helping others in the future.
Bakke, D., Martucci, B., Curtis, J., Quilty, D., BakkeDavid, D., David, … Lewis, M. (2019, July 24). 8 DIY Car Maintenance Tips You Can Handle – Checklist. Retrieved from https://www.moneycrashers.com/diy-car-maintenance-tips-checklist/.
The DIY Experts of The Family Handyman Magazine. (n.d.). 7 Car Maintenance Jobs You Can Do Yourself. Retrieved from https://www.readersdigest.ca/cars/maintenance/fix-your-own-car-car-repair-tips-experts/.
Linhart, & Jack. (2015, January 23). Fix Your Ride: 7 DIY Car Maintenance Tasks That Will Save You Money. Retrieved from https://www.thepennyhoarder.com/save-money/diy-car-maintenance/.
Eisenberg, T. (2019, August 21). How to Understand the Basics of Car Maintenance. Retrieved from https://www.wikihow.com/Understand-the-Basics-of-Car-Maintenance.
ChrisFix(n.d.). Playlist: Maintenance(Oil changes, windshield wipers, check-ups) [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLvKbarVtwhUvvdufd-D0GTB3Cq7tKxuWl
Car and Driver (n.d.). Playlist: Popular Mechanics: Saturday Mechanic: Season 1 [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6HxORx0g-g&list=PLlME_Nm6UYIU3pEslfpKASUIAVjGuClQk
Weller, Martin (2011). A pedagogy of abundance. Spanish Journal of Pedagogy, 249 pp. 223–236.
M. David Merrill wrote a very intriguing article regarding the “four phases of learning” (Merrill, 2002). I found this article really resonated with my teaching style and what I try to bring into my classroom for my students. Through this article, Merrill focuses on problem-centered instruction. Problem-centered instruction is not a new theory, this is a concept that has been around for decades. Merrill cites, “much of the current work in cognitive psychology has shown that students learn better when engaged in solving problems” (Mayer, 1992a, p. 45). In fact, when I was a University student, I found that this type of instruction helped me understand the content better and put the content into use. By learning through a problem, I felt I was better equipped to handle problems and implement the teachings.
I was recently hired to teach Business Finance courses at a University and had to switch my mindset from student to teacher. I spent a lot of time reading about different teaching philosophies as I was quite nervous to teach my first class ever. Not only was it my first time teaching, I was teaching a full course load of four courses. Nervous was an understatement. So I took to the internet and brought in a few different teaching and learning theories from educators and professionals that I admired. For example, the idea of mastery from Salman Khan. I have setup my classes so that the basic content is mastered before we move on the more complex questions or real-life questions. The theories from the different educators and professionals that I brought together in order to create my instructional design process closely align to Merrill’s four phases: “… (a) activation of prior experience, (b) demonstration of skills, (c) application of skills, and (d) integration of these skills into real-world activities” (Merrill, 2002, p. 44). Merrill goes on to elaborate that problem-centered instruction along with four other phases of effective instruction: activation, demonstration, application, and integration, are the focus of the theories stressed by Merrill (Merrill, 2002, p. 44).
Activation “learning is promoted when relevant previous experience is activated” (Merrill, 2002, p. 46). The activation phase is shown in my teachings during the beginning of class when we do a class review session on the chapter that the class has read and taken study notes on. Demonstration “learning is promoted when the instruction demonstrates what is to be learned rather than merely telling information about what is to be learned” (Merrill, 2002, p. 47). This phase occurs right after activation with a quiz. The quiz provides examples and allows my students to put their learning into use. Application “learning is promoted when learners are required to use their new knowledge or skill to solve problems” (Merrill, 2002, p. 49). The application phase is put into practice when we, as a class, begin working through simple problems to recall their reading and put it into use with some basic level practice. Problem-centered “learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems” (Merrill, 2002, p. 45). I find this is best to incorporate into my teaching closer to the end of each class. Student feedback shows that they find the case problems, which are based off of real-life events, to be really helpful with their course learning and development. The integration and problem-centered phases correlate as both are put into practice through completing real life cases or situations. Integration “learning is promoted when learners are encouraged to integrate (transfer) the new knowledge or skill into their everyday life” (Merrill, 2002, p. 50). The integration phase occurs when students go to complete their homework after class; they are able to put their learnings into further practice and then provide a reflection on the chapter through an online discussion group.
We are one month in, coming up to the first set of midterms and so far so good. Students are responding positively to the instructional design format and finding that they are getting a good grasp on the content through the different levels of learning that take place within one class.
Merrill, M.D. ETR&D (2002) 50: 43. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1007/BF02505024
Mayer, R.E. (1992a). Thinking, problem solving, cognition (2nd Ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman.
I had a tough time deciding between two individuals to introduce to you all, so I decided to just introduce both.
Scott Cook is an extraordinary business man and a personal idol. Mr. Cook is most famously known for being a cofounder of Intuit software. His Forbes Billionaire profile provides a brief overview of his background. Intuit has changed the accounting industry in ways people could never have imagined. From bookkeeping software to tax software, Intuit has created it all and it is all available online and/or in the cloud. I personally use this software for my clients and I have built my business by promoting myself as a cloud based accounting firm. Mr. Cook’s learning lesson of “looking for the surprise” (Acevedo & Beier, n.d.), has been something that I have incorporated into my business style. When I feel stuck or unsure, I think back to this video or watch this video again and I push forward. Scott Cook’s impact on allowing the everyday person to learn how to do accounting in a simple manner, in my opinion, is one of the largest impacts on the accounting industry. Competitors are coming out of the woodwork every day to try and compete against Quickbooks or other Intuit software systems, and yet it remains the industry leader. His thoughts on innovation in the workplace and how to foster a learning environment and culture are terrific.
Salman Khan is an aspiration. He is an educator who developed Khan Academy which is a free online educational platform in which he has contributed over 6,500 instructional videos. Khan Academy is a non-profit organization that provides educational content to anyone, anywhere in the world. In 2015, Khan did a Ted Talk on Education and why we should teach mastery and focus on ensuring the basics are being understood instead of just rushing students through due to deadlines. His talk was incredibly motivating and had been a real focus for me when setting up the structure for my university courses. Mr. Khan has been cited for creating the future of education. I took this concept into my courses that I am teaching this semester. I have provided the lecture material upfront and requested that the reading be completed before classes, so that I can focus on the actual teaching and instructing of how to do the accounting calculations in class. All of my students have been raving about the setup of my classes and are finding that they are actually learning more by working through problems in class versus receiving a lecture.
I hope you enjoyed meeting Mr. Cook and Mr. Khan.
Reiser provided a very interesting take of the history on instructional media. I really enjoyed reading the sections on World War II; knowing that this is when overhead projectors were first introduced is really amazing. This same technology was still used in University for teaching when I was attending my post-secondary education. It has now changed to document cameras, screen casting, or just updated projectors. I used projectors when I did training seminars with my old job as a Territory Sales Representative. The concept of using this type of technology for training is something that hasn’t changed in over 100 years. The technology may have gotten better, but the actual technology medium or equipment and usage is still the same. That is pretty incredible.
Reiser states that “….enthusiasm and interest [in a new medium] eventually fade, and an examination reveals that the medium has had a minimal impact on such practices” (Reiser, 2001). This statement really grabbed me. I disagree with several aspects of this statement. The introduction of a new medium of technology is very exciting and always draws a lot of attention. Just look at the number of people that read or watch the Apple new product launches, but I don’t think that the interest fades, I think the medium becomes part of the norm. The initial excitement brings the medium to being used by everyone and with social media, that adaptation is quick. To say that these new mediums have minimal impact on practices doesn’t seem to hold true. Just look at computers or tablets. In my new position as an instructor, I take my iPad Pro to every class. It holds all of my educational materials, I can access my textbooks and online teaching materials, and I can hook it up to the University projectors or computers. This medium hasn’t had a minimal impact, it allows me to take a lighter and smaller device to do my work more efficiently. Yes, I could use a computer or laptop, but again those mediums had a great impact on educational practice as well. Without these devices, I wouldn’t be setting up online homework assignments, providing the readings ahead of times, or doing online quizzes each class for my students. My students use iPads or tablets every class to complete note taking, assignments, and quizzes. This portable iPad/tablet medium allows me to be more efficient and effective for my students.
After reading Weller’s article, I feel like even though technology is changing everyday, maybe we aren’t quite where we should be. Educational technology and the adaptation of technology within the educational industry has been quite slow. “….edtech is not a game for the impatient” (Weller, 2018). This is surprising given that technology has had such a large impact on education, by providing the ability for students to learn online. I think it surprises me because through providing online learning applications, shouldn’t technology be changing at a greater pace in order to stay relevant and give students the best learning environment and tools in order to succeed? With more and more educational institutions providing online learning platforms for students, I hope to see more change and advancement. I hope we can look back in twenty years and say, wow!
Reiser, R.A. ETR&D (2001) 49: 53. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1007/BF02504506
Weller, M. (2018). Twenty Years of Edtech. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2018/7/twenty-years-of-edtech
When I think about Educational Technology, I feel like it is such a broad term. So let’s start with a definition. “In today’s concept, educational technology can be defined as an abstract concept or as a field of practice” (Mishra, 2009). Mishra’s idea of it being “today’s conception” really stuck out to me (Mishra, 2009). Technology is a quickly changing industry and it’s very difficult to try and say what educational technology is because we don’t know where it is going or where it will be tomorrow. Looking at the goals of educational technology can help with defining it: cost savings, increases in production, improving accessibility, adapting to different learning styles, and more. The impact and reasoning for educational technology, is quite vast. Since we can’t look at what it is today or will be tomorrow, let’s look at the history.
Nicholson states that e-learning goes as far back as the 1960’s. Education, Business, Training and the Military all used computers in some form to support and enhance learning (Nicholson, 2007). There’s other documentation mentioning educational technology going back as far as the 1700’s. “Some early educators recognize that a technology of instruction must consider the development stages of the learner” (Saettler, 2005). In order to implement instruction, the appropriate technology for each stage of learning must be developed (Saettler, 2005). The history and where educational technology comes from, seems quite controversial between educators. I, personally, didn’t think of educational technology going so far back, but that just shows you how vast the definition of educational technology really is.
When I think of educational technology I think of the big box Apple computers that we used in school for typing class. There was a cotton tea towel that was placed over our hands, which were placed on the keyboards and this was to stop us from peaking at the keys. Then we had to type. ASDF JKL;. The lessons continued into sentences and paragraphs. From the time that I started learning on computers to now, about two decades, there has been extreme advancements within technology. With these advancements, education has also developed and grown. It has to adapt with the changes in technology. For example, using screen casting, lesson plans, teaching and communication apps, online homework and textbook options, as well as full office style programming. The changes have been vast in such a short amount of time; it is truly incredible what we now can do with technology. I can’t wait to see what tomorrow brings.
Mishra, S. (2009). Educational technology: A definition with commentary – By Alan Januszewski & Michael
Molenda. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 187–187. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-
Nicholson P. (2007) A History of E-Learning. In: Fernández-Manjón B., Sánchez-Pérez J.M., Gómez-Pulido J.A.,
Vega-Rodríguez M.A., Bravo-Rodríguez J. (eds) Computers and Education. Springer, Dordrecht
Saettler, L. P. (2005). The evolution of American educational technology. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
I have always found the idea and concept of copyright to be quite complex and rather scary. Having the opportunity to listen to Melanie Wrobel’s presentation was a great privilege. I would recommend this podcast to others who also struggle with this VERY important concept. I feel as though copyright is such an important concept because of the way and methods that information can now be distributed. Everyday there is copyright infringement. People are constantly using others’ pictures, words, or “unique expressions” (personal communication, June 13, 2016).
Melanie Wrobel provided a very informative and straightforward copyright podcast. The information was clear and easy to understand. I learnt so much from this podcast that I think this blog post would be pages and pages long if I were to put it all down to paper! There were several perceptions that Melanie was able to dispel during the podcast that I found particularly interesting. I will sum up a few of, what I feel like, are the major items or takeaways from the podcast.
With the advancements and instant ability to share or post information with the use of technology, I feel as though copyright is getting harder and harder to track. Melanie mentions that this is an ongoing issue (personal communication, June 13, 2016). Authors or creators, wouldn’t even know that there has been an issue of copyright unless they search and find it, someone finds it and brings it to their attention, or they use a copyright detection software (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I’m very eager to see what the future brings in order to get a handle on copyright infringement or whether further rule development will take place making more content fall under the Public Domain.
I didn’t realize the specific definition of Public Domain and how information is considered to be on Public Domain. Melanie mentions how most members of the public assume that works on the internet or anything without a copyright sign, are of Public Domain (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I was surprised to learn that this isn’t accurate. Public Domain or an expired term of copyright is when an author dies PLUS 50 years (personal communication, June 13, 2016). This makes me look at things very differently. The articles that we share on social media, the memes that we share, the posting content; copyright needs to be considered with them all. I think there could be drastic impact to social media if people really enforced their copyright to content and images.
Copyright in terms of research study participants was also very interesting! It’s not so much of a surprise that there should be copyright protection, but I think it is something that is being overlooked. Stories and ideas from research studies are often overlooked because of anonymity for participants. This is so important for researchers to consider before starting the study and to outline rules so that everyone is comfortable with how information that is provided will be used (personal communication, June 13, 2016).
The last point I want to reference was the information that was provided on the different types of licenses for Creative Commons. I had no idea that there were differences in the copyright of information and how that information can be used. It was absolutely eye-opening! I appreciated how Melanie provided the information on which licenses were most free and least free, but also how to make sure we were using the information properly or what type of license we should use and how we can get that information (personal communication, June 13, 2016).
After watching and listening to Melanie’s podcast, I feel like I have a much better grasp on copyright and the laws that there to protect us and others.
Wrobel, M. (2016). A Guide to Copyright [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://moodle.royalroads.ca/moodle/mod/page/view.php?id=347413
Dr. Veletsianos provided some very detailed responses to the questions proposed by the five teams. The ethical question and response really stood out to me and stayed with me while listening to the other responses. The question was surrounding the ethics of today and the ethics of tomorrow. I was a member of the team that posed this question to Dr. Veletsianos and I felt like this was a tough question as the ethics of tomorrow is really an unknown. I really appreciated the position that Dr. Veletsianos took when answering this question. “Participant well-being should be taken from the very beginning, it should never be an after thought” (personal communication, August 16, 2019). This was the focus of Dr. Veletsianos’ response to the question and he was saying that ensuring the well-being of the participants is the key to remaining ethical. You cannot predict the future, but you can make sure you are taking every precaution you can to ensure the well-being of your participants. I appreciated this thought and the undertone it took through some of his other responses. For example, with the question surrounding social media platforms and the use of such platforms in research. Dr. Veletsianos mentions that some platforms have an easier accessibility of information which can cause more researchers to use that platform, this can bias the results (personal communication, August 16, 2019). This would be unethical in my mind. Researchers could be knowingly “overusing” research information for their gain because it was easier to acquire. Even though it most likely hasn’t been disclosed, Dr. Veletsianos mentions to take this into consideration when looking at these types of research (personal communication, August 16, 2019). Having a bias result, isn’t respecting or ensuring the well-being of your participants. With the changes in research, the ethical issues will continue to develop and change along with it. Due to this constantly changing environment, I believe the issue of ethical behaviour will continue to be priority.
Veletsianos, G. (2019). Questions about Research for George Veletsiano [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yzG3Sqo0wImXN0tUf9dcjXODISiSYt9gH8_gJnMC_hY/edit
When I think about what makes a good research question, there are two things that immediately pop into my mind:
A clear question that identifies what is the objective of the research being done. A concise question that provides the relevant information needed to ensure the research question is being appropriately answered.
I decided to further investigate, as I have always somewhat struggled when it came to research. I would start with what I thought was a clear path and I would end up somewhere completely different taking turns left and right.
When I looked at the Writing Centre there is an outline for the basis of a research question, “a research question should: be clear and specific; state the focus of investigation in the research; not be answerable with a yes/no response” (“Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library”, 2019).
Comparing what I had originally thought versus the information I was able to pull up, leaves the question itself. To expand on my original thought, I would include that a research question should include: who, what, where, why, and/or how. This ensures that the question would not be answerable with a simple yes or no.
Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library. (2019). Retrieved from https://library.royalroads.ca/writing-centre/writing/structure/thesis-statements
Prepared By: Sanjay Pottinger and Leigha Nevay
Digital learning environments have fundamentally impacted how educators perform their role; whether it is how an educator prepares to teach subject matter or how they teach in a fully online or blended classroom. It is clear that educators have had to adapt to the vast changes as technology has advanced. Below is a list of the impacts on educators within digital learning environments.
- Technology expertise: The vast majority of post-secondary institutions have online courses and use a learning management system (LMS) (Canadian Digital Learning Research Association, 2018). A simple search on Google will retrieve lists of the hundreds of LMS’ available. Furthermore, a learning environment “can also be technologies, resources, platforms, and systems originally created for purposes other than education” (Veletsianos, 2016, p. 243), such as Facebook or YouTube. This has required educators to be much more digitally savvy than ever before to implement content and evaluation in various modalities. With quickly changing software and platforms, educators find it difficult to maintain the technical skills needed to expertly wield the features within an LMS, social media, and/or other technology mediums that can add to the learning experience of students online (Capra, 2011).
2. Instructional design: Educators transitioning from traditional, in class, or face-to-face instruction to teaching in a digital learning environment cannot simple convert in class material to online material. They either acquire the expertise or the assistance to develop well-designed online pedagogy and assessment. Tony Bates (2012), a leader in digital learning, suggests that an educator taking on an online course rethink their approach to ensure it fits an online learner. For example, an educator recording a lecture and putting it online or conducting a class discussion, has the same desired outcome as an in-class experience. As Morris and Stommel so aptly describes this impact:
We need to recognize that online learning uses a different platform, builds community in different ways, demands different pedagogies, has a different economy, functions at different scales, and requires different choices regarding curriculum than does on-ground education. Even where the same goal is desired, very different methods must be used to reach that goal (Morris & Stommel, 2016, para. 14).
3. Technology policy: With the changes in the availability and accessibility of information, educators needed to consider further development of regulations for online and in class. The internet allows students faster and easier access to copy others’ work. Even with the advancements in plagiarism technologies that allow educators to ensure that students are completing the work themselves, academic integrity remains a concern. Educators need to “know the rules of copyright and plagiarism and alternatives such as creative commons licensing; use appropriate referencing for digital materials and support learners to do the same” (Beetham, 2015). Furthermore, in class issues such as not paying attention in class or accessing inappropriate information require further guidelines. “Decisions on technology use and conduct are now common and have added an extra dimension of consideration for educators and administrators alike” (Cuban, 1992).
4. Scheduling: Having computers increased efficiency in the classroom, allowing for students to accomplish more. “Teachers from different departments or grades move towards changing the regular time schedule” (Cuban, 1992). Educators needed to reconsider work load, timetables, and daily schedules to account for the fact that students had so much more information available at their fingertips.
5. Teaching method: Within a digital learning environment, an effective educator will have to reflect on how to focus on the learner when teaching online content. Online learners need to feel that they are part of a classroom with other learners and not just a learner navigating an online space on their own, an issue that does not exist in a traditional face-to-face setting. Online learners interfacing with one another is crucial for the learning process. The instructor has to be intentional about creating meaningful social interaction within the online course or risk students feeling disengaged. Garrison, Anderson & Archer state that, “socio-emotional interaction and support are important and sometimes essential in realizing meaningful and worthwhile educational outcomes” (2000). Instructors must decide how they will transfer or facilitate information, what technological method available they will use to help students collaborate, and how they will interact with the online group (Bates, 2012).
Bates, T. (2012, May 6). Nine steps to quality online learning: Step 1: Decide how you want to teach online. Retrieved from https://www.tonybates.ca/2012/05/06/nine-steps-to-quality-online-learning-step-1-decide-how-you-want-to-teach-online/
Beetham, H. (2015, November 10). Framing digital capabilities for staff – deliverables. Retrieved May 31, 2019, from https://digitalcapability.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2015/11/10/framing-digital-capabilities-for-staff-deliverables/
Canadian Digital Learning Research Association (2018). Tracking online and distance education in Canadian universities and colleges: 2018 Canadian national survey of online and distance education Retrieved from https://onlinelearningsurveycanada.ca/download/556/
Capra, T. (2011). Online Education: Promise and Problems. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2(7), 288-293. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no2/capra_0611.pdf
Cuban, L. (1992, November 11). Computers Meet Classroom; Classroom Wins. Retrieved May 31, 2019, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1992/11/11/10cuban.h12.html
Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in text based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6
Morris, S. M., & Stommel, J. (2013). Why Online Programs Fail, and 5 Things We Can Do About It. Retrieved from http://hybridpedagogy.org/why-online-programs-fail-and-5-things-we-can-do-about-it/
Veletsianos, G. (2016). Digital learning environments. In N. Rushby & D. Surry (Eds), Handbook of Learning Technologies (pp. 242-260). UK: John Wiley & Sons.