Theory, O Theory

My ARP is titled “Managing Academic Integrity Within Post-Secondary Online Education”. To provide you with some context, my overarching research question is: What factors should be considered in order to create a post-secondary online environment with academic integrity?

There are three theoretical frameworks I am looking at further exploring: the Social Cognitive Theory, the Self-Efficacy Theory, and the Community of Inquiry Framework. Academic integrity is not a new concept for educators. However, with the rise of technology in post-secondary education, it is important to consider the impact technology is having on academic integrity. The ability to access information is easier and faster than ever, making this issue surrounding academic integrity more apparent.

The Social Cognitive Theory: Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) would be explored as the theoretical framework to understand students’ varying perceptions of and justification for cheating” (Burnett, Enyeart Smith, & Wessel, 2016).

The Self-Efficacy Theory: Bandura’s theory of Self-Efficacy is based on one’s own beliefs and their ability to succeed. This theory would be explored as a predictor of academic integrity (Baran & Jonason, 2020).

The Community of Inquiry Framework: The Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework would be explored in order to understand the link between CoI, or the quality of course, and academic integrity (Garrison, 2013).

Questions Regarding Frameworks:

  • Are the SCT, Self-Efficacy theory, and CoI appropriate theories and frameworks in reference to my research question?
  • Do you see the opportunity to implement the use of other theories to aid in creating an online post-secondary environment with academic integrity?

Thank you for your time and I look forward to seeing your comments and feedback.

References:

Baran, L., & Jonason, P. (2020, August 31). Academic dishonesty among university students: The roles of the psychopathy, motivation, and self-efficacy. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458306/

Burnett, A.J., Enyeart Smith, T.M. & Wessel, M.T. (2016). Use of the Social Cognitive Theory to Frame University Students’ Perceptions of Cheating. J Acad Ethics 14, 49–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-015-9252-4

Garrison, D. R. (2013). Theoretical foundations and epistemological insights of the community of inquiry. In Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. R. (Eds.), Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice (pp. 1-11). http://doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2110-7.ch001

Creating and Disseminating

Disseminating my research is never something I thought about. I figured I would do my ARP and that would be that.

My topic surrounds academic integrity and creating an honest environment for online examination. With COVID all courses have moved online, whether this was an intention or not. Through this movement, there has been more ways to cheat on exams than every before.

My topic brings me to the following big underlying question:

How would you ensure that it gets into their hands?

Website and professional development program are the two concepts I’m toying with. With everything going on, people need some flexibility. Flexibility on timelines and delivery methods. I do majority of my reading on a computer. with the lack of free time, I try to use every spare minute. Website and asynchronous professional development programs provide this sense of freedom.

One topic:

How can instructors create an honest online exam environment?

Sub questions:

Can a collaborative platform assist with creating this environment?

Does a test attestation have any impact?

I want to create a website that houses professional development to help instructors. The website itself is a learning tool. Not only can you access my research, but you can learn and develop the skills in order to create an honest online examination environment (at least this is the hope).

3..2..1..The End

What a course this has been! Thank you to my cohort for driving my knowledge down different paths. It has been a fun ride!

On to the nit and gritty!

3 Thoughts…

  1. You cannot summarize enough! Providing summaries for introductions, readings, and post activity is important for learners. These summarizations can help learners feel a continued connection after a learning session has ended.
  2. Clear and descriptive outlines. An outline should introduce the learner to the activity, describe the required associated to the learning objective, and provide the assessment or evaluation criteria.
  3. Not everything needs to be so serious. A lot of time learners get caught up in whats for marks and forget that they should be enjoying this process as well. You can learn and have fun. If there is anything I want to take away from this course, it’s COI. COI brings learners together, providing a sense of community through your active learning process. In using this framework learners can feel supported while engaging in content through personal meaning and confirming understanding.

2 Questions..

  1. How should a facilitator engage students with different technological platforms? Is it a good idea to create multiple platforms for learning content in order to create different learning methods for students?
  2. An online environment can be new, tricky to navigate, and there can be privacy concerns. How can you encourage learners to be brave and resilient while also feeling comfortable and safe within an online environment?

Quote

Morihei Ueshiba quote: Those who are enlightened never stop forging themselves.

Image via AZ Quotes

When I look back at my original post and compare it to my post above, I see some similarities and some growth. I feel as though I have a clearer picture of some of the gaps within online facilitation. Without having your regular checkins or lectures, learners can get lost. Along with the fun, accessibility and casual atmosphere that digital facilitation provides, it is important to clearly outline a path for learners and allow them to forge ahead strong. This is where my quote and image come in. We, as facilitators, can only provide the path, it is and will remain up to the learner to forge onwards. Our group chose to provide a self-directed facilitation week, allowing learners to remain in control of their experience. Overall, our feedback was strong with only one individual mentioning that they wanted more. They were so enthralled by our content, that they wanted to see and learn more. Every other individual provided the feedback that it was just right. It is within your ability, as a learner, to know your limits and cater your experience to those limits.

Forge on my friends!

Leigha

Assignment #2 – Facilitation Plan – Final

Team Members: Terra Aartsen, Owen Lloyd, Kathy Moore, Leigha Nevay, and Kerry Sharples.

Our team has put together the following facilitation plan which outlines the different technologies and activities we will be using during our week long learning module.

Learning Objective

Demonstrate the relevance and importance of questions when facilitating learning in both synchronous and asynchronous environments.

Reading

11 Ways to Facilitate Great Conversations. (2016, February 10). Retrieved September 16, 2020, from Coaching for Leaders website: https://coachingforleaders.com/facilitate-great-conversations/

Maxey, C., O’Connor, K., & O’Connor, K. (2013). Organic Facilitation. Fearless facilitation : The ultimate field guide to engaging (and involving!) your audience (pp. 19-32). ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.royalroads.ca

Useful Questions for Dialogue Facilitation – Inclusive Teaching. (n.d.). Retrieved September 11, 2020, from https://sites.lsa.umich.edu/inclusive-teaching/inclusive-classrooms/useful-questions-for-dialogue-facilitation/

Learning Activity Description

There are various learning activities scheduled through both the synchronous and asynchronous learning experiences.

Our synchronous session will be conducted over Zoom. In this session, we demonstrate the importance of questions through use of breakout room and main room discussions. Within the Zoom technology, we will demonstrate and use the whiteboard technology to enhance the hold smaller group discussion and overall teaching presence. Each member of our group will act as hosts within each of the breakout rooms illustrating the usefulness of questions during a facilitation. save the picture from the breakout room and present it to the class

Our asynchronous session will be focused around an interactive video. Automated messages including guided questions will be sent to the learners in order to set an expectation for the learning activity experience. Pos video automated messages will also be sent in order to ensure reflection on the activity has occurred for each learner. These responses will be posted anonymously in the Moodle forums to foster continued discussion and learning.

Description of Synchronous Session

Using Zoom Technology we will facilitate smaller breakout room discussions, allowing for a more personal interaction space. Each team member will act as a facilitator in a breakout room demonstrating our topic and guiding the discussion through the use of questions. Once the time is up, all participants will be drawn back into the main room, where each group will present their whiteboard and discussion points. In the background the team will create a word collage summarizing each of the individual breakout room presentations and then post it in the Discussion Forum in Moodle. Our group has decided to record this session for those who could not participate on Zoom. This will allow for those individuals to still participate in the forum discussion in Moodle.

Description of Asynchronous Session

Through the use of an interactive video our group aims to provide some insight and guidance of our topic. Along with the video will be quiz type questions in order to measure retention and gain perspective on learners’ reflections. The video will be embedded into our Moodle shell and invite the learners to further participate in Moodle discussions forums. The quiz questions will be posted anonymously, thus respecting individuals’ privacy, but also ensuring each individual perspective was shared.

Date and Time of Synchronous Session

Week 7: Wednesday Oct 7th 5:30 – 6:30 pm (PST)

Technologies

There are several technologies we will use during our facilitation week:

  • Moodle and various Moodle plugins
  • Crossword
  • Zoom
  • H5P interactive video

Timeline

We will begin with a welcome announcement message sent through Moodle. This message will provide an outline of the required activities along with a suggested timeline. There will be one set synchronous session held through Zoom on Wednesday October 7th. Learners are encouraged to take part in the various discussion forums.

Presence Planning

  • Teaching Presence

    • Through the use of prompting questions and guiding room discussions, we can create a positive and engaging learning environment.
  • Social Presence

    • Through the synchronous session, learners will be split into smaller breakout rooms each with a facilitator. These breakout rooms will allow for the development of interpersonal skills through smaller session sharing between learners. This environment provides an opportunity for learners to feel well heard and allow for a projection of their individual personalities (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). The facilitator can ensure that each learner receives the opportunity to participate in a safe and respectful environment.
  • Cognitive Presence

    • Each activity, whether synchronous or asynchronous, will have a follow-up discussion or prompt in order to confirm that a reflection on the learning has taken place. By providing the opportunity for learners to summarize, discuss, and be engaged in a summary style fashion, learners are likely to feel a sense of sustained discourse (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). We will be monitoring and engaging the learners through the discussion forums and throughout the activities. Our team has also provided a collaboration room for use if desired to further discussions and foster continued engagement.

Through the use of our chosen technologies and various learning activities, our group will demonstrate the importance of questions in a facilitation; thus, resulting in a reinforced educational experience. We look forward to our facilitation with you in Week 7.

 

References:

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher educationmodel. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

Assignment 2 – Facilitation Plan – Draft

Our team has put together the following facilitation plan which outlines the different technologies and activities we will be using during our week long learning module. 

Learning Objective

Demonstrate the relevance and importance of questions when facilitating learning in both synchronous and asynchronous environments. 

Reading

We are finalizing our decision regarding the reading for this week. Please stay tuned for our selection.

Learning Activity Description

There are various learning activities scheduled through both the synchronous and asynchronous learning experiences.

Our synchronous session will be conducted over Zoom. In this session, we demonstrate the importance of questions through use of breakout room and main room discussions. Within the Zoom technology, we will demonstrate and use the whiteboard technology to enhance the hold smaller group discussion and overall teaching presence. Each member of our group will act as hosts within each of the breakrooms illustrating the usefulness of questions during a facilitation. save the picture from the breakout room and present it to the class

Our asynchronous session will be focused around an interactive video. Automated messages including guided questions will be sent to the learners in order to set an expectation for the learning activity experience. Pos video automated messages will also be sent in order to ensure reflection on the activity has occurred for each learner. These responses will be posted anonymously in the Moodle forums to foster continued discussion and learning.

Description of Synchronous Session

Using Zoom Technology we will facilitate smaller breakout room discussions, allowing for a more personal interaction space. Each team member will act as a facilitator in a breakout room demonstrating our topic and guiding the discussion through the use of questions. Once the time is up, all participants will be drawn back into the main room, where each group will present their whiteboard and discussion points. In the background the team will create a word collage summarizing each of the individual breakout room presentations and then post it in the Discussion Forum in Moodle. Our group has decided to record this session for those who could not participate on Zoom. This will allow for those individuals to still participate in the forum discussion in Moodle.

Description of Asynchronous Session

Through the use of an interactive video our group aims to provide some insight and guidance of our topic. Along with the video will be quiz type questions in order to measure retention and gain perspective on learners’ reflections. The video will be embedded into our Moodle shell and invite the learners to further participate in Moodle discussions forums. The quiz questions will be posted anonymously, thus respecting individuals’ privacy, but also ensuring each individual perspective was shared.

Date and Time of Synchronous Session 

Week 7: Wednesday Oct 7th 5:30 – 6:30 pm (PST)

Technologies

There are several technologies we will use during our facilitation week:

  • Moodle and various Moodle plugins
  • Zoom
  • H5P interactive video

Timeline

We will begin with a welcome announcement message sent through Moodle. This message will provide an outline of the required activities along with a suggested timeline. There will be one set synchronous session held through Zoom on Wednesday October 7th. Learners are encouraged to take part in the various discussion forums.

Presence Planning

  • Teaching Presence

    • Through the use of prompting questions and guiding room discussions, we can create a positive and engaging learning environment. 
  • Social Presence

    • Through the synchronous session, learners will be split into smaller breakout rooms each with a facilitator. These breakout rooms will allow for the development of interpersonal skills through smaller session sharing between learners. This environment provides an opportunity for learners to feel well heard and allow for a projection of their individual personalities (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). The facilitator can ensure that each learner receives the opportunity to participate in a safe and respectful environment. 
  • Cognitive Presence

    • Each activity, whether synchronous or asynchronous, will have a follow-up discussion or prompt in order to confirm that a reflection on the learning has taken place. By providing the opportunity for learners to summarize, discuss, and be engaged in a summary style fashion, learners are likely to feel a sense of sustained discourse (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). We will be monitoring and engaging the learners through the discussion forums and throughout the activities. Our team has also provided a collaboration room for use if desired to further discussions and foster continued engagement. 

Through the use of our chosen technologies and various learning activities, our group will demonstrate the importance of questions in a facilitation; thus, resulting in a reinforced educational experience. We look forward to our facilitation with you in Week 7.

 

References:

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher educationmodel. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

The Online Sponge

As a new University educator I feel like a bit of a “sponge”, which in all honesty, isn’t a new feeling for me. I have been continuing my post-secondary education for the past 12 out of 14 years, trying to be a sponge for all of them. I feel like there is this concept of trying to absorb everything I can. I think of my students this way as well and my job, as an educator, is to create the opportunity for them to absorb my materials.

I teach accounting courses and have been teaching students in both face-to-face and online delivery modes. Most instructors shy away from teaching online as they find it to be quite difficult and disconnected from their students, but I really enjoy it and have received quite positive feedback.

I have used the Community of Inquiry, or “CoI”, model and created an infographic in order to provide faculty with support material on how to provide an effective online course. The CoI model is a way to provide a worthwhile educational experience, through the integration of three essential elements; social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000, p.88).

The social presence element is based on building a strong environment for learners to feel welcomed, reached, heard, and a part of something. Bull refers to these roles as being a “social butterfly” and “a good party host” (Bull, 2013). I think that this is very accurate. In order to provide instruction and facilitate an online course, you need to be able to reach, entertain, and engage your learners.

Cognitive presence is providing the opportunity for the learners to absorb material. This is done through the understanding and retaining of new information. The strategy of controlling how and what information is being provided to learners is referred to as the “valve control” (Bill, 2013). Here is where instructors can focus learners attention to specific outcomes.

Teaching presence is the ability “…to design and integrate the cognitive and social elements for educational purposes” (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000, p.92). This element considers the design, facilitation, and support provided to learners. When looking at Bull’s Eight Roles of an Effective Teacher, I look at the remaining roles; “Tour Guide”, “Cheerleader”, “Learning Coach”, “Mirror” and “Co-Learner”, and see that they all relate to the presence and capability of the instructor (Bull, 2013).

These CoI elements and integrated strategies can provide the right type of environment for a successful online sponge experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Bull, B. (2013). Eight Roles of an Effective Online Teacher. Faculty Focus.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education model. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

Get With The Program

Digital Facilitation is taking over, whether you like it or not! At least, this is what we discuss regularly during our unit and department meetings. For those that argue against change and can’t jump on board, you have no choice now. COVID sped up the process for online/remote learning and digital facilitation in a way that no one was expecting.

When I think of digital facilitation, I think, yes! Finally! Let’s get some cool technology into education. Let’s create to educate and engage our learners. My 3 current thoughts about digital facilitation are:

1) Accessible. Digital facilitation provides the accessibility for students and learners to take part anywhere. Whether you are providing or taking part in an asynchronous or synchronous class, you can do this from any location and in some cases, any time zone.
2) Fun. I love the idea of digital facilitation, I think of all the ways technology has allowed facilitation to be more engaging through so many different technological mediums. Whether you use Kahoot!, H5P, Canvas, Doodle, Google Docs, Moodle, etc., you can engage learners so that they are present during sessions.

3) Casual. Digital facilitation makes me think of instructors in professional shirts and sweat pants. Digital facilitation provides a more relaxed environment for learning. You can be at home, with all your snacks, coffees and using your own office/learning space setup.

Like many others digital facilitation makes me a bit nervous as well. The two main questions that come to mind are:

1) What’s next?  Where is technology going and what new technology am I going to have to learn tomorrow? The changes are happening constantly and it is hard to stay on top of it all.

2) I don’t think that this is specifically related only to digital facilitation, but what can I do to make sure  my learners are engaged and understanding the learning objectives? Evaluations can only take you so far. Whether you have anonymous survey’s, open dialogue forums, or exams, the data can only provide so much accuracy.

Technology is like a river, there are calm parts and rapids, we as instructors need to guide are learners down the river as safely as we can.

I’m looking forward to jumping into the raft and seeing what we turn up with this course.

The Rabbit Hole Continues

Down the rabbit hole - Chicago Tribune

Each time we get to this stage in a course and are asked to reflect on our learnings, I think of my rabbit hole. This comic that I chose, so clearly defines how I feel. Each course teaches me something new, brings something different out of me and works to make me better. We aren’t at the end yet, but I can feel that sense of growth along the way.

This course has come at a tough time for me. COVID has hit me pretty hard and made work incredibly demanding. That being said, this course has surprised me. I didn’t think I would enjoy creating a DLR as much as I have. My background, before becoming an accountant, was Marketing. I was a Territory Sales Rep and Creative Director for a few years. Having started the Creative Design Department in Canada for my prior company, I was very used to being creative. This course sparked that creative side in me. In my Assignment #1, I pushed myself to learn and use a different technology within an old technology that I love. I used a software called Presenter Media, which is an animated form of powerpoint. I had a lot of fun creating that assignment.

Feedback has always been really important to me. I feel like I can’t grow and develop without it. However, it’s not just any feedback, but specific and focused feedback. I have really appreciated the feedback I have received in this course. It has reignited my excitement, as I feel like I can really push myself to do more, learn more, and ultimately, grow. “There is no failure. Only feedback.” (Allen, n.d.).

For Assignment 3, I completed my Design Note and a video outline. I am looking forward to creating my final submission of this assignment and finalizing my DLR. I am hoping to bring my project to fruition and present it to the University for use within our programs.

Looking forward to my continuing fall; excited to see what I can learn along the way.

Thinking Back and Moving Forward

I always thought podcasts weren’t for me. I don’t have time to listen to someone ramble on about nothing. Yet, I’m that person that has to have noise when working or studying, or pretty much doing anything. Silence is not my friend. It was love at first episode. I was working as an auditor at the time and I would listen to music all day long. I needed to listen to something while I worked and music was all I knew. A colleague recommended I try Serial. As a horror movie fanatic, it didn’t take very much persuading. My first experience with podcasting occurred three years ago. I haven’t tried anything since, until we began this assignment just a few weeks ago.

I really enjoyed the experience and learning more about what podcasts have to offer. This technology provides such great opportunity for individuals to experience different topics of interest without a cost. Podcasts are free, easily accessible, and can be done while doing other tasks providing a freedom of time.

It turns out I have been creating video podcasts for my classes for months without even realizing it. I record my lectures for my students so they have access to the materials whenever they need it. I provide an asynchronous style of teaching for my online courses and since COVID, all of my face-to-face instruction courses have moved online as well.

Podcasting is still such a new innovation within the audio and audio/visual realm of technology. There has been a large shift in the desire for online education, both synchronously and asynchronously. Podcasting provides content with an ease of accessibility for students and is not limited to just instruction, but can also be used for providing feedback or review of assignments. Using a podcast in your teaching can encourage your students to engage with your classes, your material and ensure there is not any missed content (Gray, 2017).

 

References:

Gray, C. (2017, January 24). Podcasting in Education: What Are the Benefits? Retrieved from https://www.thepodcasthost.com/niche-case-study/podcasting-in-education/#:~:text=One of the greatest advantages,anywhere, with very little effort.

The Audacity to Explore: Using Critical Inquiry to Examine Podcasts as a Learning Event

As part of LRNT526, Inquiry into Contemporary Issues in Learning Technology, we were asked to participate in a learning event using a technology of our choosing. Team 1 consisted of  Terra Aartsen, Lisa Gedak, Owen Lloyd, Kathy Moore, and Leigha Nevay. Our team chose to complete the assignment on Podcasts. Here is the link to the blog post for Team 1.