My Rabbit Hole

Down the research rabbit hole | Tracy Abell

(Abell, 2017)

Our group chose podcasts for the team learning event and delivery technology assignment.  I was excited about choosing this topic, as I have been an on and off fan of the technology for the past few years.  I have to admit, it was a coworker who recommended Serial, that got me hooked on listening to podcasts.  The concept of being able to do other things while listening to something isn’t foreign to me.  In fact, it’s how I spend majority of my day.  I am a multitasker through and through.  To me, podcasts were just like listening to music, but instead, I was listening to a story.  I didn’t really think of podcasts in terms of education, or furthering my knowledge on a subject.  I had classified podcasts as a source for entertainment.

It wasn’t until my group decided to use this technology for our project and through my research, I realized that podcasts offer so much more than just entertainment.  Fang wrote a terrific article that outlined why people listen to podcasts and I found it very enlightening.  From creative inspiration, to entertainment, to expanding ones knowledge on a multitude of subjects; podcasts can provide a convenient source of just about anything (Fang, 2019).  Podcasts offer opportunity to individuals to be efficient with time by providing on demand accessibility.  Through further exploration as to the impact of the podcast technology on education, I found it really interesting that there was such a positive response from students.  “Irrespective of the form of podcasting, student satisfaction is typically strong and students generally perceive podcasts to have enhanced their learning” (Chester et al., 2011, p. 236).

As I continued down my rabbit hole of research, I started to feel overwhelmed.  There is so much information out there regarding different topics and it became clear to me that I needed to answer the question of how to deal with the abundance within podcasts.  I have come up with a few questions that I would like to consider in my research and I am open to suggestions regarding how to deal with the abundance of podcasts:

  • What questions are relevant when looking at the abundance of technology?
  • What are you doing with the information?
  • How do you navigate through an abundant amount of resources?
  • What makes a source credible?

I would appreciate any insight or thought regarding my topic of abundance or podcasts, and how the two relate.

References:

Abell, T. (2017, December). Retrieved from https://tracyabell.com/2017/12/07/down-the-research-rabbit-hole/

Chester, A., Buntine, A., Hammond, K., & Atkinson, L. (2011). Podcasting in Education: Student Attitudes, Behaviour and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 14(2), 236–247.

Fang, W. (2019, December 24). Why Do People Listen to Podcasts in 2020? Retrieved from https://www.listennotes.com/podcast-academy/why-do-people-listen-to-podcasts-in-2020-5/

Change: Leadership in Digital Environments – A Roadmap to Success

Leadership

Al-Haddad & Kotnour and Biech noted some common elements within leadership with change: identify problem, create resource availability, invitation, train, support and review. This conception of how to deal with change in leadership can be adapted for a change within digital learning environments. Sheninger notes the 7 Pillars to Success for implementing change within digital learning environments, and even these notions show common elements to the above mentioned theories.

We start the roadmap with the concept of identifying a need for change. “Proper planning and analysis help[s] identify the gap between where the organization is now and where it wants to be” (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015, p. 243). This process is important and leads to creating the vision for change.

The vision for change requires a buy in from all employees in the organization. In order to create change and be effective leaders, everyone needs to see the same vision and creation of opportunity that can be implemented by change. The downside of vision, is the sense of loss. “People go through phases as they adjust to change and people perceive change as a loss – if only as the loss of what was” (Biech, 2007).

Communicating within the digital age is looked at as a hurdle. “Important information can be communicated through various free social media tools and simple implementation strategies in order to meet stakeholders in the digital age” (Sheninger, 2014). Sheninger’s theory on communication is applicable to education or learning environments as well. There are many social media tools, or learning platform tools, that allow students and instructors to communicate effectively ensuring that students and professor remain on the same learning/course path.

The evaluation of performance provides a roadmap for students to see what and how they are going to achieve their grade or result in the course. This metric provides a clear picture of what is required for students to achieve success, but also providing an opportunity for growth. Evaluation provides a sense of effectiveness, efficiency, quality, and productivity (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015, p. 241). By setting objectives and metrics on how to measure those objectives, students can see where they went wrong and instructors can see where more communication may be needed, where a problem may exist, and/or how they can improve to ensure students are receiving the information they needed for success. “Evaluating the impact of the change is an important step of closure, but deciding what to do with what you learn is also important” (Biech, 2007).

Support is an element that is often forgotten or rendered unnecessary. Students require support to ensure comprehension, clarification, or verification of their thought. Providing students the opportunity to reach out for support and assistance through different digital mediums can allow students to feel more comfortable and heard. Biech speaks to reflecting and supporting the learning with reflection (Biech, 2007). Upon reflection, students can review to see where they feel their needs are not being met, providing upwards feedback. Top down feedback is provided through performance evaluation, through criticism and critique. Instructors can incorporate self-reflection, looking at how they can improve their leadership. Along with reflection, is support during the process of change. “Consistently seek out ways to improve existing programs, resources, and professional development through technology” (Sheninger, 2014). Through support, instructors can alter the course, creating a stronger learning environment along the roadmap of learning.

References:

Al-Haddad, S., & Kotnour, T. (2015). Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful changeJournal of Organizational Change Management28(2), 234-262.

Biech, E. (2007). Models for Change. In Thriving Through Change: A Leader’s Practical Guide to Change Mastery. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.  [Retrieved from Skillsoft e-book database]

Sheninger, E. (2014). Pillars of digital leadership. International Centre for Leadership in Education.

 

 

 

Managing Change

In reading the articles and publications that were provided within this unit, I see a lot if content and theory that makes sense. However, I don’t necessary agree that our current technological and societal ties are taken into account specifically. Then I think, do they need to be? Change is change and whether we are changing to use technological advancements or not, organizational readiness for change, is a large factor to consider (Weiner, 2009). I don’t agree that all concepts, tasks and so on need to be adapted because we have technology. What we need to look at is the original theory and adapt that process of integrating change due to the technology we are using. Kanter’s suggested skills for change leaders are just as relevant today as they were in 2000:

  1. “Tuning in to the environment.
  2. Challenging the prevailing organizational wisdom.
  3. Communicating a compelling aspiration.
  4. Building coalitions.
  5. Transferring ownership to a working team.
  6. Learning to preserve. (7) Making everyone a hero” (p. 34).

It isn’t about the theory that needs to be changed, if leaders use these skills and adapt these skills to what they are changing due to technology, I believe the leaders will still be successful.

Sheninger’s 7 Pillars of Digital Leadership can really be adapted to any type of service or business (Sheninger, 2019). The leadership style and qualities are not confined by technology, but how how to embrace technology into the process of leading.

My leadership style most commonly aligns with Khan and Sheninger. I believe in the process and theories they have outlined. The 7 pillars are attributes I strive to have as a leader (Sheninger, 2014). Khan’s two theories of adaptive leadership and transactional leadership, are a broader view of my leadership style (Khan, 2017). This view hasn’t changed since Unit 1.

Leadership doesn’t play just a role in managing change, it is the main role in managing change. A leadership style can influence how well others take change, are open to change, or execute the change. Leaders initiate a change based on the strategic objectives for the company (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015, p. 234). Once the change has been initiated a process must be put in place that incorporates how to get to the strategic objectives. Setting goals and defining performance measures allows an organization to clearly define a desired outcome and evaluate the execution (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015, p. 251).

When I think about being an online instructor, I think there are a few important aspects to ensure have been portrayed. Using an example from Sheninger, communication (Sheninger, 2014). Students don’t have that time in class to ask me questions as soon as they arise, they are delayed through email or s discussion forum post and then my delay in a response. It is imperative I work hard to stay on top of emails, discussions and questions in order to best help students move forward with their assignments and questions. Another example that is evident in being a university instructor is, evaluation. For a lot of students, my course is one of the first ones they have taken online at University. Setting an expectation on how they will be evaluated in an asynchronous learning environment, is imperative. Students need to understand what type of information they will receive and how to complete the course.

When it comes to leadership, these decade old theories and concepts remain relevant in today’s world. It’s the process of incorporating change and how to do that within today’s world where we are behind. Adapting to technological advancements and incorporating this into the process of change is where we as a whole struggle, whether we are leaders or users.

References:

Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for changeImplementation Science4.

Sheninger, E. (2014). Pillars of digital leadership. International Centre for Leadership in Education.

Khan, N. (2017). Adaptive or Transactional Leadership in Current Higher Education: A Brief ComparisonThe International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning18(3).

Al-Haddad, S., & Kotnour, T. (2015). Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful changeJournal of Organizational Change Management28(2), 234-262.

 

Debating effects of Media and Technology on Learning

Co-authored by: Leigha Nevay, Tala MamiCaroline MonsellKerry Sharples, and Owen Lloyd

Image retrieved from: Retrieved from https://medium.com/@_mufarrohah/the-influences-of-technology-and-media-on-learning-process-de86ac9d7da6.

Summary of the points of view in Clark and Kozma’s Papers

Richard E. Clark and Robert B. Kozma are considered by many as the founding fathers of the Great Media debate. This debate focuses on media’s role in teaching and learning with Clark claiming that media is a delivery means of information while Kozma’s contrasting view is that media WILL influence learning when applied correctly.

Clark provides a simple and to the point article on why media will never influence learning. “Many researchers have argued that media have differential economic benefits but no learning benefits” (Clark, 1994, p. 21). Clark states that media is simply a method in which learning is delivered but does not influence the achievement for students taking in the information (Clark, 1994, p. 21). This leads to the hypothesis that, “instructional methods had been confounded with media and that it is methods which influence learning” (Clark, 1994, p. 21). The definition of method is the shaping of information that activates the cognitive process necessary for achievement (Clark, 1994, p. 22). The definition of medium is how that information is provided, for example, face-to-face or online. A study was completed by Suppes that demonstrates that it was not the medium, but the drill or method of information that influenced achievement within the learners (Clark, 1994, p. 23).

The article expresses many claims to the lack of media influence on learning, but the main focus behind Clark’s claim is due to the confusion around the definition of method and medium. The use of media within instruction was found to have the same cognitive results or replicate similar cognitive functions for learners without the use of media in instruction (Clark, 1994, p. 22). Clark states that instructional design science requires the least expensive alternative for education, as long as the efficiency is the same (Clark, 1994, p. 21). This means that if the cognitive functions are the same, the cost of using media in instruction is higher than a traditional instructional design, therefore, the traditional design would be chosen. Clark summarizes his theory by stating, “media and their attributes have important influences on the cost or speed of learning but only the use of adequate instructional methods will influence learning (Clark, 1994, p. 27).

While Kozma believes that under the correct condition media will influence learning by implementing the media’s defining attributes correctly. Kozma draws a distinction between media attributes and capabilities, expressing that “The attributes of a medium are its capabilities; the capabilities of a medium are always present” (Kozma, 1994, pg. 13) and that it’s through the careful consideration of the unique context for students, tasks, or situations how to best use these capabilities to influence learning.

To clarify the point, he continues by identifying that causes that were effective and facilitated learning in one situation may have an entirely different effect in a different situation or context despite the fact they were used in a similar manner. For that reason, a media theory must consider both the media’s specific capabilities and the uniqueness of individual social situations which they are being used. Kozma continues to suggest that we should not be separating medium and method and that these two should have a more integral relationship when instructional design is being considered.

It is Kozma’s belief that we shouldn’t be debating if or if not, the media has an influence on learning but more importantly how can we use media capabilities to facilitate learning for individual students, tasks and situations. So not When, or If but HOW.

Together the five of us from the 2019 Royal Roads MALAT program searched the internet for examples of media’s use and the effect it had on learning hoping to find some clarity for these contrasting points of view.

 

How Immersive Learning Empowers Students and Teachers Alike.

Dave Dolan’s blog post How Immersive Learning Empowers Students and Teacher Alike is an excellent example of Kozma’s statement in his article, Will media influence learning: Reframing the debate. Educational Technology Research and Development, of how important it is to use a medium’s defining capabilities to enable learning. Immersive Virtual Learning’s defining capability is its ability to immerse students into a world framed by the learning subject matter at hand promoting focused, distraction free learning. Additionally, Kozma attests that media theories should reflect the capabilities of media and the situations with which they are used. VR (Virtual Reality) immersion allows learners to both interact with the learning material and optionally with each other with-in the virtual world. This creates a unique learning environment specific to the situation with which its being used.

Dave states, in his post, that Immersive Learning enables students to “experience” the subject matter allowing them to construct new knowledge and meanings supporting the idea that the learning came from the attributes of the medium and not a by product of it. Citing results from a student poll conducted in 2017 he also points out the connection to VR’s distraction free learning environment and a resultant increase in connection between the student and the subject as a means of increased retention of information.

Clark states in his rebuttal to Kozma that that in order for the media to be considered as having affected learning, it’s attributes must be solely responsible for the learning and not a by product of the delivery mode. To that end, I would suggest that Immersive learning’s unique delivery method is an exclusive attribute and as such provides a unique cognitive effect for the learning task. Reflecting upon Kozma idea of subjecting media to a “replicability test” I find it hard to envision another means of delivering information that would provide the same exposure and immersion as Virtual Learning. Certainly, video and television can both provide dynamic symbology elements but neither can eliminate distractions or elicit the same focused attention. An audio or aural delivery using headphones would certainly isolate the learner from audio distractions but not visual ones. I think Virtual Immersive Learning would pass a “replicability test” and qualify as possessing exclusive attributes that affect learning.

 

The Influences of Technology and Media on Learning Process.

In Mufarrohah’s article “The Influences of Technology and Media on Learning Process”, multiple sources and authors are used to display how and why media influences the learning process. Mufarrohah uses both Kozma and Clark within her article as a way of explaining that the learning process can and is open for personal interpretation. When Clark wrote “Media will never influence learning” (Clark, 1994), we were four years away from Google making an appearance and Wikipedia was a distant thought. Technology was at the beginning of a technological paradigm change with Clark’s thought process, where both students and teachers had yet been influenced by the modern technologies and software to come (Mufarrohah, 2016). Though Clark made an extremely compelling argument regarding instructional methods in regards to students preferring a face-to-face method, we see a stark contrast was provided by Mufarrohah’s research which states: “online enrollments in higher education was growing up 21%, whereas the growth for traditional way just only 2% since 2002” (Mufarrohah, 2016). The question should not necessarily be whether or not Media influences learning, but if the influence is positive or negative.

There were a few findings within the article that could be in contrast to Kozma’s train of thought, though still not necessarily aligning with Clark. For example, it is noted that there could be psychological effects for students in an unconventional environment and “students who failed to make online connections with other learners in their group reported feeling isolated and more stressed” (Mufarrohah, 2016). This doesn’t mean that the student would choose a “traditional design” as Clark stated, however it could affect what courses the student takes and how they respond to tasks. Clark did not take what steps/solutions an institution may implement into account and what avenues are being explored to assist students. This specific group activity is a great example of a group of students being encouraged to work together and make those online connections – reaching out and guiding each other to reduce stress and build a network. Kozma was able to see the technological shift happen 25 years ago and stated, “technology and media will give more opportunities to discover the potential relationship between teaching process and learning environments (Kozma, 1994)”. We have seen exponential growth in technology and media since both Kozma and Clark wrote their articles, one can only imagine what the next 25 years will bring – something Clark appears to have underestimated.

Mufarrohah, S. (2016, December 10). The Influences of Technology and Media on Learning Process. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@_mufarrohah/the-influences-of-technology-and-media-on-learning-process-de86ac9d7da6.

 

Al’s Wide Open: The Future of Higher Education.

In 1994, Richard Clarke wrote the article Media will Never Influence Learning.  He claimed that ‘instructional methods influence learning’ (para. 2) and that there are ‘no learning benefits from media’ (para. 1).  Clarke postulated that media was one of many vehicles that could be used to deliver information to students and this vehicle that delivered information did not influence student achievement.  In order to understand the impact that technology has made on the education technology sector, we have to move the clock forward 25 years to 2019. Artificial intelligence has emerged in online education and it has positively impacted and more importantly influenced student achievement through the opportunity for personalized and adaptive learning (Duijser, 2019, para. 1).

In the blog post, AI’s wide open: the future of higher education, Duijser explains that personalized learning with artificial intelligence tailors the learning experience to the needs of the learner.  This is accomplished through a concept referred to as nudging which incorporates reinforcement and support of positive patterns of behaviour by providing the students prompts in areas of the course that they may be finding difficult.  Artificial intelligence can recognize the areas of difficulty for the students and guide the student to the right answer which is in effect identifying a teaching method required to assist the student. Artificial intelligence determines the teaching method based on the needs of the learner.  Clark suggested that ‘it is not the computer, but the teaching method built into CBI that accounts for the learning gains” (para.4). In Clark’s example the teaching method was determined by the instructional designer not by the media. Twenty-five years of educational technology has produced tools to provide feedback to students incorporating their preferred learning styles.

Artificial intelligence has also provided the opportunity for adaptive learning specific to students needs.  Duijser explains that artificial intelligence can define how the student sees the course material because based on how the student answers the question, subsequent content is constructed based on their first answer.  This means that several students studying the same information could be presented with different course materials and assessments based on their strengths and areas for growth. (para. 12). On the other hand, Clark (1994) suggested that ‘learning features may affect the economics but not the learning effectiveness of instruction’. (para 13).  Artificial intelligence creates effective and efficient learning outcomes for students by adapting to the students needs. In 1994, instructional designers could have adapted learning to students needs, if these needs were identified. With artificial intelligence everything is identified immediately – in real time.

Does History repeat itself?  Educational Technology has changed how we see the world and how we learn.  Educational technology history is not repeating itself – it is ever changing, actually changing our lives forever.

 

Immersive Reader Takes the Spotlight in Drama Class.

In this article, the author, who is the Head of Drama, Gifted and Talented Coordinator and MIE Expert at Dubai British School, talks about the use of technology in the classroom (drama classes), specifically Microsoft Teams (MT) and Immersive Reader (IR).

(Mayhew, 2019) described the benefits of MT and IR on the learning process specifically with personalized learning, and she argues that the attributes of media in MT and IR have had implications on students’ cognitive processes. One of the examples she provided to support her claim was: “I was asking students to learn entire scripts for one of their GCSE components on a tight timeline, but I needed to further break down the task. And Immersive Reader was just the tool to help students learn their scripts for their practical unit and take the pressure off” (Mayhew,2019, para. 5). The author’s claims support Kozma’s claims that media influences learning (Kozma, 1994). On the other hand, Clark (1994) argues that many very different media attributes accomplish the same learning goal. In this article (Mayhew, 2019) claims that MT and IR attributes can support learning. However, other ed-tech attributes can also achieve the same learning goal. Despite Clark’s opinion that “If there is no single media attribute that serves a unique cognitive effect for some learning task, then the attributes must be proxies for some other variables that are instrumental in learning gains” (Clark, 1994, para.2), this article shows how MT and IR attributes have supported students’ learning.

References

Clark, R. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-29.

Dave Dolan’s blog: How Immersive Learning Empowers Students and Teachers Alike

Duijser, A. (2019, September 26).  AI’s wide open: the future of higher education.  Retrieved from https://edtechnology.co.uk/Blog/ais-wide-open-the-future-of-higher-education/

Kozma, R. (1994). Will media influence learning: Reframing the debate. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 7-19.

Mayhew, L., (2019, August, 22). Immersive Reader takes the spotlight in Drama class. Retrieved from https://educationblog.microsoft.com/en-us/2019/08/immersive-reader-takes-the-spotlight-in-drama-class/#Lcq6kLiZRuFCGEKb.99

Basic Car Maintenance 

Image Attribution: <a href=”https://www.vecteezy.com/free-vector/tire”>Tire Vectors by Vecteezy</a>

 

By: Christina Jones and Leigha Nevay

 

When you need to get something specific done, you go see a professional with expertise in that area. Basic car maintenance is one of those things most people pay for, yet is surprisingly easy to take care of yourself. There is a large amount of knowledge on the internet with step by step instructions on how to take care of basic car maintenance. Searching “DIY Car Maintenance” resulted in 23.9 million sources of information. When searching “DIY Car Maintenance for Mazda CX-5”, 1.19 million sources were revealed. A further, more defined search of, “2018 Mazda CX-5 Oil Change”, resulted in 5.02 million results. When scrolling through these results, the content provided is relevant to what was searched. There are maintenance schedules, discussion forums, videos, as well as articles and journals all relating to the oil change service for a Mazda CX-5.

 

Due to there being an abundant amount of content and variation related to this topic, we found that defined searches were the most relevant format of research and created the best content results. This will provide information that is more directly correlated to what task you are completing. It is important to find the type of resource of information that best suits your learning capabilities. For the purposes of this exercise, we defined basic car maintenance as: checking and changing your fluids, changing your air filter, changing your wiper blades, taking care of battery maintenance, and changing your tires. There are many great articles outlining the steps required in completing basic car maintenance, some even specific to your make and model of car. These articles outline the amount of time required to complete the activity, tools required to complete the task, materials needed, and the money that you will save completing this yourself versus going into an auto service shop. The number of videos walking you through the steps far outweighs the written article content available for this topic and also varies from generic material to make and model specific material. There are also plenty of online discussion forums with resources on how to do certain maintenance on vehicles, as well as, the issues that people have run into while completing such tasks. 

 

“This scale and range of learning related content at least raises the question of whether we have developed the appropriate teaching and learning approaches to make best use of it” (Weller, 2011, p. 226). With there being so many different sources of information, as a learner, you can pick and choose what type of information will work best for you. Educators would need to attempt to complete the task with the resource that was provided to ensure that the information is accurate. As an educator, you would need to find the content that speaks to the majority of your audience, perhaps using a combination of information sources. Starting with written material, then following with a video instruction, could have a stronger impact on the retention for students. Opening discussion forums for students to use while in practice is a great way of ensuring that the students were able to comprehend the information that was presented to them. This would also provide additional material and content back into the system, possibly helping others in the future. 

 

References: 

Bakke, D., Martucci, B., Curtis, J., Quilty, D., BakkeDavid, D., David, … Lewis, M. (2019, July 24). 8 DIY Car Maintenance Tips You Can Handle – Checklist. Retrieved from https://www.moneycrashers.com/diy-car-maintenance-tips-checklist/.

The DIY Experts of The Family Handyman Magazine. (n.d.). 7 Car Maintenance Jobs You Can Do Yourself. Retrieved from https://www.readersdigest.ca/cars/maintenance/fix-your-own-car-car-repair-tips-experts/.

Linhart, & Jack. (2015, January 23). Fix Your Ride: 7 DIY Car Maintenance Tasks That Will Save You Money. Retrieved from https://www.thepennyhoarder.com/save-money/diy-car-maintenance/.

Eisenberg, T. (2019, August 21). How to Understand the Basics of Car Maintenance. Retrieved from https://www.wikihow.com/Understand-the-Basics-of-Car-Maintenance.

ChrisFix(n.d.). Playlist: Maintenance(Oil changes, windshield wipers, check-ups)  [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLvKbarVtwhUvvdufd-D0GTB3Cq7tKxuWl

Car and Driver (n.d.). Playlist: Popular Mechanics: Saturday Mechanic: Season 1  [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6HxORx0g-g&list=PLlME_Nm6UYIU3pEslfpKASUIAVjGuClQk

Weller, Martin (2011). A pedagogy of abundance. Spanish Journal of Pedagogy, 249 pp. 223–236.

Copyright Podcast Reflection

I have always found the idea and concept of copyright to be quite complex and rather scary. Having the opportunity to listen to Melanie Wrobel’s presentation was a great privilege. I would recommend this podcast to others who also struggle with this VERY important concept. I feel as though copyright is such an important concept because of the way and methods that information can now be distributed. Everyday there is copyright infringement. People are constantly using others’ pictures, words, or “unique expressions” (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

Melanie Wrobel provided a very informative and straightforward copyright podcast. The information was clear and easy to understand. I learnt so much from this podcast that I think this blog post would be pages and pages long if I were to put it all down to paper! There were several perceptions that Melanie was able to dispel during the podcast that I found particularly interesting. I will sum up a few of, what I feel like, are the major items or takeaways from the podcast.

With the advancements and instant ability to share or post information with the use of technology, I feel as though copyright is getting harder and harder to track. Melanie mentions that this is an ongoing issue (personal communication, June 13, 2016). Authors or creators, wouldn’t even know that there has been an issue of copyright unless they search and find it, someone finds it and brings it to their attention, or they use a copyright detection software (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I’m very eager to see what the future brings in order to get a handle on copyright infringement or whether further rule development will take place making more content fall under the Public Domain.

I didn’t realize the specific definition of Public Domain and how information is considered to be on Public Domain. Melanie mentions how most members of the public assume that works on the internet or anything without a copyright sign, are of Public Domain (personal communication, June 13, 2016). I was surprised to learn that this isn’t accurate. Public Domain or an expired term of copyright is when an author dies PLUS 50 years (personal communication, June 13, 2016). This makes me look at things very differently. The articles that we share on social media, the memes that we share, the posting content; copyright needs to be considered with them all. I think there could be drastic impact to social media if people really enforced their copyright to content and images.

Copyright in terms of research study participants was also very interesting! It’s not so much of a surprise that there should be copyright protection, but I think it is something that is being overlooked. Stories and ideas from research studies are often overlooked because of anonymity for participants. This is so important for researchers to consider before starting the study and to outline rules so that everyone is comfortable with how information that is provided will be used (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

The last point I want to reference was the information that was provided on the different types of licenses for Creative Commons. I had no idea that there were differences in the copyright of information and how that information can be used. It was absolutely eye-opening! I appreciated how Melanie provided the information on which licenses were most free and least free, but also how to make sure we were using the information properly or what type of license we should use and how we can get that information (personal communication, June 13, 2016).

After watching and listening to Melanie’s podcast, I feel like I have a much better grasp on copyright and the laws that there to protect us and others.

Reference

Wrobel, M. (2016). A Guide to Copyright [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://moodle.royalroads.ca/moodle/mod/page/view.php?id=347413

My Thoughts on Dr. George Veletsianos Q&A

Dr. Veletsianos provided some very detailed responses to the questions proposed by the five teams. The ethical question and response really stood out to me and stayed with me while listening to the other responses. The question was surrounding the ethics of today and the ethics of tomorrow. I was a member of the team that posed this question to Dr. Veletsianos and I felt like this was a tough question as the ethics of tomorrow is really an unknown. I really appreciated the position that Dr. Veletsianos took when answering this question. “Participant well-being should be taken from the very beginning, it should never be an after thought” (personal communication, August 16, 2019).  This was the focus of Dr. Veletsianos’ response to the question and he was saying that ensuring the well-being of the participants is the key to remaining ethical. You cannot predict the future, but you can make sure you are taking every precaution you can to ensure the well-being of your participants. I appreciated this thought and the undertone it took through some of his other responses. For example, with the question surrounding social media platforms and the use of such platforms in research. Dr. Veletsianos mentions that some platforms have an easier accessibility of information which can cause more researchers to use that platform, this can bias the results (personal communication, August 16, 2019). This would be unethical in my mind. Researchers could be knowingly “overusing” research information for their gain because it was easier to acquire. Even though it most likely hasn’t been disclosed, Dr. Veletsianos mentions to take this into consideration when looking at these types of research (personal communication, August 16, 2019). Having a bias result, isn’t respecting or ensuring the well-being of your participants. With the changes in research, the ethical issues will continue to develop and change along with it. Due to this constantly changing environment, I believe the issue of ethical behaviour will continue to be priority.

Reference

Veletsianos, G. (2019). Questions about Research for George Veletsiano [Audio recording]. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yzG3Sqo0wImXN0tUf9dcjXODISiSYt9gH8_gJnMC_hY/edit

What Makes a Good Research Question?

When I think about what makes a good research question, there are two things that immediately pop into my mind:

  1. Clear
  2. Concise

A clear question that identifies what is the objective of the research being done. A concise question that provides the relevant information needed to ensure the research question is being appropriately answered.

I decided to further investigate, as I have always somewhat struggled when it came to research. I would start with what I thought was a clear path and I would end up somewhere completely different taking turns left and right.

When I looked at the Writing Centre there is an outline for the basis of a research question, “a research question should: be clear and specific; state the focus of investigation in the research; not be answerable with a yes/no response” (“Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library”, 2019).

Comparing what I had originally thought versus the information I was able to pull up, leaves the question itself. To expand on my original thought, I would include that a research question should include: who, what, where, why, and/or how. This ensures that the question would not be answerable with a simple yes or no.

 

References:

Thesis statements/Research questions/Problem statements | RRU Library. (2019). Retrieved from https://library.royalroads.ca/writing-centre/writing/structure/thesis-statements

My Network

 

My digital presence is of medium size. I have so many accounts all over the place! My sharing and communicating online, is small, which actually made this exercise quite difficult!

I find that I can learn so much online, reading articles, reading the news, updates on how my friends are, and so much more. I find other peoples’ interests, interest me and I look into things more closely.”The spread of knowledge through a network closely resembles the spread of infection: learning is contagious”  (Kleinberg, 2007). For example, a friend of mine has become rather famous online due to her vegan posts. This made me curious to the options out there, as I have an allergy to milk. The more I read and learnt, the more disturbed I was by some of the practices out there. Especially when thinking about milk! My son also has an allergy to milk, so learning about the different substitutes available and baking that you can do, has been life changing for me.

I find I am joining more and more networking groups within online networking platforms. These groups are allowing me to grow professionally. “For a learner in a network, there is typically greater value to be found in diverse networks than in those that are self-similar. If a network consists of many different people with various skills and interests, then there is a far greater chance that someone in the network will have the skills and interests needed to assist with a particular learning goal” (Anderson, Dron, 2014, p. 155). I have been enjoying building my professional network, while I have actually reduced my personal network. I did a Facebook Friends purge, where I got rid of a whole bunch of people that I really don’t talk to. Why did I feel the need to have these people on my Facebook in the first place? We were never really friends, yet, it mattered! Maybe because we had so many mutual friends, maybe because I wanted to have a bigger friends number. As I have been focusing so much more on my professional network, I have realized, that I would like a smaller personal network. Something more manageable and controlled. Is that even possible when it comes to online?

My Network Mapping Breakdown:

I have broken down myself into the three versions of myself; professional, personal, and student. For my professional aspects, I have been looking to increase my online presence, making myself more available than ever before to clients, co-workers, and students. For my personal aspects, I have narrowed down my online usage, limited my personal information available online, and really looked at who has access to my information. For my student aspects, I have networked and made so many friends. I have also been a student for quite some time! I have been in some form of post-secondary since 2006! Once I finished a diploma, I kept on taking courses, moving on to my Degree, Professional Designation, Professional Development Certificates within the CPA, and my Masters.

If my map seems a bit chaotic, I think I have nailed this one on the head. My life is chaotic, that’s the truth. I have so much going on, but I love it. I love being busy, I love the rush, and I love knowing that I am accomplishing things.

 

References:

Kleinberg, J. M. (2007). Cascading behavior in networks: Algorithmic and economic issues. In N. Nisan, T. Roughgarden, E. Tardos, & V. Vazirani (Eds.), Algorithmic game theory (pp. 613-632). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dron, J, & Andreson, T. (2014). Teaching Crowds. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120235

My Digital Presence

Who am I online?

I was reading “Guest Post | Who Are You Online? Considering Issues of Web Identity” (Schryver, 2013) and I felt like this article hit me right in the gut…. Hard…. When it comes to my social media, I am private, but I share what I feel like is appropriate.

What is appropriate?

Definition of appropriate

especially suitable or compatible FITTING

(Merriam Webster)

I post what is happy. Not what is real. Not how I’m feeling, how I’m doing or the struggles of the day. I post what I feel is suitable for public content, not necessarily the whole truth.

My goal through this course and defining my digital presence, is to allow myself to be myself. To let my feelings come out in my writing.

I had my 1 on 1 with Elizabeth this week and I explained to her my idea for my digital presence. Will it change? Grow? Adapt to each course and learning I am undertaking? Absolutely! Or I at least, I hope so!

So here I am, “The Momfessional”.

This is me. I am a mom, I am a professionally designated accountant, and I want to confess. I want to be able to bring in my two worlds, let them collide and raise chaos. Then, I want to be honest about it. I want to confess what happened, how I struggled and persevered. My LinkedIn account will remain very professional. Through Twitter and my Blog, I hope to bring more of me and this identity I have cultivated for myself.

I am someone who craves control, works hard to make sure everything falls into place and lines up. Then I had my son…. Nothing went to plan, I had to let go. I like letting go.

Gardner Campbell said, “In building that personal cyberinfrastructure, students not only would acquire crucial technical skills for their digital lives but also would engage in work that provides richly teachable moments ranging from multimodal writing to information science, knowledge management, bibliographic instruction, and social networking” (Campbell, 2009). Let’s open up that learning portal and figure this out as well go. Let’s all let go together and see how paths deviate and twist and turn.

Working through the Unit readings has already helped me immensely in figuring out who I have been online. Who I was, maybe still who I am to some degree. Through the readings and learning that I will be undertaking, I can change, develop, and grow. By completing each reading and each course, I feel like I will gain knowledge and awareness of my areas of weakness and strengths, I can make this happen. Make it happen the way I want it to.

How do I measure such a personal challenge? This is something I haven’t figured out and I am ok with that. Maybe I will just know, my gut will know, and I will feel it! Maybe I can learn some tools to do this. We shall see.

I’m excited, are you?

References:

Schryver, K. (2013, February 05). Guest Post | Who Are You Online? Considering Issues of Web Identity. Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/05/guest-post-who-are-you-online-considering-issues-of-web-identity/?_r=0

Appropriate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/appropriate

A Personal Cyberinfrastructure. (2009, September 4). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2009/9/a-personal-cyberinfrastructure